Bachelor of Science [B.Sc] (Medical) - Course Overview

  • STREAM

    SCIENCE

  • DURATION

    3 YEARS

  • COURSE

    Biomedical Sciences

  • COURSE TYPE

    Graduation

    Bachelor of Science [BSc] Medical Syllabus, Top Colleges, Admission, Eligibility, Exams, Job Salary 2020-21

    Sakshi Gupta Sakshi Gupta
    Content Curator

    BSc Medical is an undergraduate course, the duration of which is 3 years duration. It involves the study of Sciences like Zoology, Botany, Chemistry and allied Medical Technology.

    This course is designed for those students who wish to make a career in the medical field. 

    Check the list of Top BSc Medical Colleges in India. 

    To be considered eligible to seek admission to this course, candidates must have secured an aggregate of at least 50% marks in Class 12 in Science Stream. 

    Admission to this course will be done either on the basis of the candidate's performance in the entrance test or on the basis of performance in the qualifying examination.  

    Alert: The admission process for most of the colleges offering this course have been postponed due to the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. The entrance exam dates for Panjab University have also been postponed. Check the latest updates related to Panjab University Admissions.

    Some of the top colleges offering BSc Medical course in India are provided in the table given below:  

    India Today Ranking 2020College NameAdmission ProcessAverage Annual FeesAverage Annual Salary
    23GGDSD, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 24,500INR 4,75,000
    31MCM DAV, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 20,630INR 3,40,000
    34DAV College, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 25,105INR 3,00,000
    35Postgraduate Government College for Girls, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 22,990INR 3,80,000
    82DAV College, AboharMerit-BasedINR 22,750INR 5,00,000

    The average course fee to pursue this course ranges between INR 24,000 and INR 5,00,000. 

    BSc Medical degree holders will be able to find work in various sectors such as Pharmaceutical Companies, Hospitals, Healthcare Centers, Medical Camps, Diagnostic Centers & Services, Pathology Laboratories, Academic institutes, Simulation centers, Research & Development centers, IT in Medical Technology, Entrepreneurship etc.

    They may also serve as Medical Technologist, Lab Assistant, Test Supervisor etc. Graduates have the opportunity to work in India or Abroad to pursue graduate studies and to get involved in research activities.

    The average BSc Medical salary can be from INR 3,00,000 to INR 6,00,000, depending on student’s skills and the type of college offering the course. 

    After completing this course, students can pursue higher studies and advanced academic exploration along with research through MSc and Certificate Courses. This course essentially provides a solid basis for further studies and related prospects. 

    Also check top MSc Colleges in India. 

    BSc Medical Admission Process

    BSc Medical Admission Process 

    BSc Medical admissions are done through entrance examination mode or direct admission. The step by step process to get admitted through entrance examinations is given below.

    Admission Process

    Entrance Exam Based Admission

    • Universities/Colleges that conduct entrance examinations, usually require candidates to apply and download the required Admit Card/Hall Ticket for the specified entrance exams and attempt the examination on the stipulated date and time
    • Once the University/College releases the respective results of the entrance exam, merit lists for the same will be released, containing the names of the candidates along with the marks and ranks they secured.
    • All admissions to the programs are based on the scores obtained in the entrance exams.
    • Selected candidates need to then send their documents for verification.

    Direct Admission

    • Candidates should fill the application form of the college and select the course BSc in Medical
    • Since the admission is on the basis of scores of 10+2, candidates should perform well in their Higher Secondary Examinations
    • After paying the application fees and submitting the application form, college releases the cut-off list and list of candidates selected
    • Candidates need to then send their documents for verification. 

    BSc Medical Eligibility 

    Candidates who wish to pursue BSc Medical need to have completed the below-mentioned eligibility criteria:

    • Must have completed 10+2 from a recognized board with a minimum aggregate of 50%.
    • For SC/ST/OBC students, the minimum marks requirement is 45%.
    • Students passing 10+2 should have studied Physics, Chemistry and Biology as their main subjects.
    • Candidates should be at least 17 years of age.

    BSc Medical Entrance Exams

    Some of the Top BSc Medical Entrance Exams are:

    • CUCET: This exam is conducted by the Chandigarh University for students seeking admissions to the various courses offered at the institute. It is conducted online in three phases. Students can apply online as well as offline. 

    CUCET Pattern and SyllabusCUCET Practice PapersCUCET 2020 Cut Off
    • PU CET: This examination is conducted by the Panjab University for students seeking admission to undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Students are required to apply online and the exam is conducted offline at the various University centres. 

    PU CET 2020 Exam Pattern and SyllabusPU CET Practice Papers

    The dates of application and examination for the above-mentioned examinations are mentioned in the table below: 

    Entrance TestApplication PeriodExam DateExam ModeResult Date
    CUCET 2020March 16 - June 06, 2020September 18 - 20, 2020OfflineSeptember 30, 2020 (Tentative)
    PU CET 2020 March 11 - August 9, 2020Cancelled due to Covid-19OfflineTo be announced

    How to Prepare for BSc Medical Entrance Exams?

    Some of the important points that candidates can keep in mind while preparing for Bsc Medical entrance exams are given below: 

    • Syllabus: Students must go through the syllabus of the course and mark all the important topics from syllabus
    • Revise important topics: Revise all the important topics from the syllabus. Make sure to solve all questions that are related to the important topics.
    • Practice Previous Year’s Question Papers: Solve previous year’s question paper so that you can get use to the question and it will also help in increasing your speed as the exam will be in online mode
    • Mock Test: Candidates can solve and give the online mock test at the official website. It will increase efficiency and speed and will boost up your confidence. 

    How To Get Admission In a Top BSc Medical College?

    To secure admission into a top-ranking BSc Medical college, a number of factors come into play. Some of the following tips will be helpful in that regard.

    • In case the students are applying for institutes that conduct entrance tests, they must look up previous years’ question papers, be well-versed with the syllabus and start preparing well in advance.
    • In the case of institutes that take in students based on merit in 10+2, students must get acquainted with the cut-off scores from previous years. They must study the syllabus thoroughly and in an organised manner while preparing, with their goal in mind. 
    • Group discussions and personal interviews test the candidate’s interpersonal skills, communication skills and passion for the relevant medical field.
    • Students should apply to as many leading colleges as possible to increase their probability of getting admitted to a good one.
    BSc Medical: What is it about?

    BSc Medical: What is it about?

    Check the below-mentioned points to know more about BSc Medical course details:

    • The essence of the courses lies in health sciences and the human body and also the allied technical and scientific fields.
    • The course is for students with a zest for scientific knowledge about medical technology and human biology. 
    • This program is designed for those willing to make a career in the medical field. 
    • While pursuing a BSc Medical course, students get to learn various topics such as in-depth study of the human body, develop skills and expertise on how the human body functions and many more. 

    BSc Medical Course Highlights

    The course highlights for BSc Medical course have been put in a table below. All the important information regarding this course has been mentioned below.

    Course LevelUndergraduate
    Full FormBachelors of Science in Medical
    Duration3 years
    Examination TypeSemester
    Eligibility10+2 in Science stream
    Admission ProcessMerit/Entrance based
    Average Annual Fees INR 24,000 - 5,00,000
    Average Annual SalaryINR 3,00,000 - 6,00,000
    Top RecruitersRanbaxy, Wipro, Panacea Biotech, IBM etc. 
    Job PositionsTeacher, Lab Technologist, Lab Assistant, Scientific Researcher etc. 
    Why BSc Medical?

    Why BSc Medical?

    Students can choose BSc Medical due to its following advantages:

    Why Study B.Sc Medical?
    • This course will help students develop a research aptitude, critical thinking and analytical skills.
    • Students can contribute to society by learning about sustainable ways of development and helping in their implementation.
    • After completing the course students can avail jobs in areas like education, environment, agriculture, healthcare, pharmaceutical companies and other allied sectors. 
    • Both government and private sector organizations recruit BSc Medical candidates on a regular basis. 
    • The salary package offered to Medical students is good and the demand for this program is increasing day by day. So, the salary offered to Medical students is expected to increase further in future. 

    BSc Medical vs BSc Non-Medical

    BSc Medical and BSc Non-Medical courses differ in subject matter. The former is usually about the study of subjects like Chemistry, Zoology and Botany while the latter is about the study of subjects like Informational Technology, Mathematics and Physics.

    Course BSc MedicalBSc Non-Medical
    OverviewBSc Medical is concerned with the study of subjects like Chemistry, Botany and Zoology, and associated medical technology.BSc Non-medical is about the study of scientific subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Applications and other relevant disciplines. 
    Eligibility10+2 with 50% in Science stream (PCB)10+2 with 50% in Science stream
    Admission ProcessMerit/Entrance basedMerit/ Entrance based
    Average FeesINR 10,000 to 50,000INR 20,000 to 5,00,000
    Average Salary INR 3,00,000 - 6,00,000INR 4,00,000 - 10,00,000
    Job Profiles Academic Researcher, Medical Lab Assistant, Lab Technologist, Medical office Assistant, School teacher and Scientific Researcher etc. Assistant Professor, Computer Teacher, Applications Developer, Computer Operator and Senior Programmer Analyst etc. 
    Top RecruitersPharmaceutical Companies, Healthcare Companies, Scientific Research organisationsHCL, Microsoft, Adobe, Oracle, Accenture and Airtel
    Average Annual Fees
    Average Annual Salary

    Source: College Websites

    Top Colleges for BSc Medical

    Top Colleges for BSc Medical

    Some of the top colleges offering BSc in Medical program are provided in the table below:

    India Today Ranking 2020College NameAdmission ProcessAverage Annual FeesAverage Annual Salary
    23GGDSD, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 24,500INR 4,75,000
    31MCM DAV, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 20,630INR 3,40,000
    34DAV College, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 25,105INR 3,00,000
    35Postgraduate Government College for Girls, ChandigarhMerit-BasedINR 22,990INR 3,80,000
    82DAV College, AboharMerit-BasedINR 22,750INR 5,00,000
    96DAV College, HoshiarpurMerit-BasedINR 13,380INR 4,00,000

    Comparison of Average Annual  Salary

    Source: College Websites

    BSc Medical College Comparison

    Below table shows some of the major differences between top BSc Medical colleges in India:

    ParametersGGDSD College, Chandigarh MCM DAV, Chandigarh DAV College, Chandigarh 
    OverviewGGDSD College is among the leading institutes in India and it offers UG, PG & Doctoral courses in various disciplines.MCM DAV ensures the holistic development of its students through the programs that it offers.DAV College is affiliated to Panjab University and is known for offering all-round education across multiple disciplines.
    India Today Ranking23 31 34 
    LocationChandigarhChandigarhChandigarh
    Admission ProcessMerit-BasedMerit-BasedMerit-Based
    Average FeesINR 24,500INR 20,630INR 25,105
    Average SalaryINR 4,75,000INR 3,40,000INR 3,00,000
    Top RecruitersRanbaxy, Cipla, Panacea Biotech, IBM and Dr. Reddy’s LabWipro, Aditya Birla, Fitkids, Orchid International School and Finvasia GroupInfosys, Wipro, Ernst & Young, and Decathlon

    College Comparison

    Source: College Websites

    BSc Medical Syllabus

    BSc Medical Syllabus

    The duration of this course is 3 years which is divided into six semesters. The year-wise syllabus of BSc in Medical program is mentioned below:

    Year IYear IIYear III
    ChemistryGeneral EnglishChemistry
    Computer Science ChemistryComputer Science
    BotanyComputer ScienceBotany
    ZoologyBotanyZoology
    __Zoology__

    BSc in Medical Books

    Some of the important books that students can refer to while pursuing BSc Medical program are given below:

    BookAuthor’s Name
    Modern Text Book of Zoology : InvertebrateR.L. Kotpal (2009)
    Basic Organic ChemistryCotton F. A., Wilkinson, G., Gaus, P.L. (1995)
    Economic Botany in TropicsS. L. Kochhar (2012)
    Developmental BiologyS. F. Gilbert (2014)
    Inorganic ChemistryWilliam W. Porterfield (1984)
    Botany for Degree StudentsB. P. Pandey (2009)
    Evolution of VertebratesE. H. Colbert
    Essential Cell BiologyBruce Alberts (1997)
    Biochemistry & Animal PhysiologyS. K. Taneja (1997)
    A Textbook of ZoologyT. J. Parker and W. A. Haswell (1981)
    BSc Medical Job Profiles And Career Prospects

    BSc Medical Job Profiles And Career Prospects

    There are a large number of job options available to BSc Medical degree holders. Some of the prominent ones are given below: 

    • On completion of this degree, students can work in pharmaceutical, medical, hospitals, nursing homes, medical camps or school and college laboratories. 
    • There are a large number of private and government organizations which offer jobs to BSc Medical students. 

    Some of the job options available to students after completing this course are mentioned below:

    Job ProfileJob DescriptionAverage Annual Salary
    Laboratory AssistantA Laboratory Assistant maintains lab records, equipment and assists the lab director in managing the lab.INR 3,45,000
    Scientific ResearcherA Scientific Researcher works in laboratories and investigates hypotheses in specific fields that they have knowledge of. INR 5,83,000
    ZoologistA Zoologist studies evolution of species, behaviour patterns, collect and analyse data, and conduct biological and environmental surveys.INR 5,00,000
    BotanistA Botanist studies, investigates and prepares reports on environmental projects. INR 5,50,000
    Teaching AssistantA Teaching Assistant at the college or university level works under the lecturers and professors. They help in preparing course plans, assessing papers and assignments, and even deliver lectures, if instructed to do so.INR 2,56,000
    Average Annual Salary vs Job Profiles

    Source: College Websites

    BSc Medical Future Scope

    After completion of the BSc Medical program students can choose from a variety of options like pursuing further studies or looking for jobs in areas like teaching, laboratory work and scientific research.

    • Higher Studies: Students can pursue higher studies in the subject that they have studied and are most interested in. For example, MSc in Zoology, MSc in Chemistry or MSc in Botany, MSc Medical Anatomy etc. .
    • Research Work: Students interested in academic and scientific research can work with research teams at the institutes or prepare research projects of their own. Research grants are sanctioned for projects that show impressive progress.
    • Certification/Diploma Courses: Certification or short-term diploma courses like a Medical Assistant Diploma can give one the required qualifications to start working in medical jobs.
    • Jobs: After completing the course, the options include becoming a school teacher, a lab technologist or a medical lab assistant. Jobs specific to areas of study can also be taken up like Botanist, Zoologist or a Biochemist
    • Internships: Some institutes give the students opportunities to pursue internships along with studying the course. Internships can help the students with learning more about their field and earn the experience that may be required at the successive job.
    BSc Medical FAQs

    BSc Medical FAQs

    Some of the most frequently asked questions pertaining to BSc Medical program are as follows: 

    Ques. Is there an age limit for applying to a BSc Medical course?

    Ans.  There is no upper age limit for applying to the course but the students must be at least 17 years of age.

    Ques. Are BSc Medical subjects too tough?

    Ans.  If the student is passionate about learning and has a keen interest in learning the subject, it wouldn’t be tough to pursue the course. It just comes down to the individual's efforts and interests.

    Ques. What are the additional compulsory subjects that are included in the BSc Medical curriculum in Panjab university affiliated colleges?

    Ans.  Students of the Panjab University affiliated colleges require students to study Environmental Science, English Compulsory and Punjabi/History and Culture of Punjab, as additional compulsory subjects of the course.

    Ques. Can students opt for Honours in BSc Medical?

    Ans.  Yes, some institutes provide the option of pursuing Honours in one of the three elective subjects third semester onwards.

    Ques. Can students work with government funded research projects after completion of this course?

    Ans.  Yes, students can join government funded research projects as academic or scientific researchers after completing BSc Medical course. 

    Ques. Which institutes in Himachal Pradesh offer BSc Medical course?

    Ans. St Bede's College, Shimla, Eternal University, Sirmaur and  Baddi University offer this course in Himachal Pradesh. 

    Ques. What is the application fee for applying to the CUCET entrance exam?

    Ans.  The application fee for applying to CUCET, conducted by the Chandigarh University is INR1000.

    Ques. Do the colleges offering the course provide scholarships to students?

    Ans.  Yes, institutes offer scholarships based reservation guidelines, based on merit and financial situations of the students. Some institutes also assist the students in availing educational loans.

    Ques. Have the entrance exams been cancelled due to covid-19?

    Ans.  Due to the pandemic, many entrance exams have either been postponed, cancelled or are being conducted in the online mode.

    Ques. Is it better to pursue higher studies or start a career after a BSc Medical course?

    Ans.  For the candidates who wish to solidify their knowledge and abilities, it is better to pursue higher studies such as a Master’s degree and later on PhD. On the other hand, candidates who are ready to work should take up job opportunities.

    Bachelor of Science [B.Sc] (Medical) : 3214 Answered QuestionsView All

    • Top Answer By Rupesh Biswas on 26-Nov-2020

    Ans. ASU offers many scholarships to meritorious students. Carey School of Business gives out scholarships worth 1Million USD which attracts a lot of applicants. However, this has also resulted in a competitive applicant pool and lower acceptance rates. General Scholarships range from 500-5000 USD and are very competitive. Students need to have excellent leadership skills, high GPA, and a record of impressive community service in their previous studies. Other than these, you can consider Graduate assistantships at W.P Carey School of Business. However, these are only 10 hours a week and limited in number. It's better if you opt for externally funded scholarships as the competition is cutthroat.Read more

    0
    0
    1 Answer

    • Top Answer By Rupesh Biswas on 26-Nov-2020

    Ans. A huge number of international students go for Global Business Management in Canada which makes it easier to settle there later on. This Graduate Certificate program at Humber College helps you prepare a variety of business management careers after your bachelor's. The highlight of this program is the Work Placement in 4th semester which helps you get practical work experience for a minimum 320 hours. Here’s a quick program guide: Some other perks include: A lot of employment opportunities in Canada's financial services hub With an 85% employment rate at Humber College, average starting salary goes up to 90,500 USD after completing this program.  The university is affordable with an annual tuition fee of 13,084 USD/year with some scholarships available for international students. Well connected and plenty of outing and recreational options Course and Placements First year's core curriculum covers important areas of business like teamwork, leadership, strategic planning and more.  Your second year has nine specializations out of which you choose one.  Some of these streams are Event management, advertising media management, financial planning, international business management and Entrepreneurial enterprise.  Graduates can find many jobs as marketing manager, banking manager, management analyst and more after this course. All have decent demand in and outside Canada.  Read more

    0
    0
    1 Answer

    • Top Answer By Rupesh Biswas on 26-Nov-2020

    Ans. Most employable graduates from Canadian universities have been ranked by companies around the world in the Global University Employability Ranking 2019 by Times Higher Education. One of these is McGill University which was ranked #2 in Canada for graduate employability by THE Rankings.Thus a large percentage of international students continue to apply and study at McGill, which continues to offer a rewarding study experience and placement opportunities.  Innovation Week, Entrepreneurial hubs, start-up competitions, mentorship and many other opportunities to learn outside the classroom guarantee the best possible support to all students. Most graduates here find placement within 3 to 6 months of completing their degrees with an average base salary of 40,000 to 108,000 CAD, making it worthy of all the effort. The image above shows Canada’s top universities for their employability. According to Emolument, these are the top salaries arranged by degrees of McGill graduates and alumni: McGill has many activities to help students enhance their career prospects, be it local or international students so there are definitely good jobs waiting for their graduates.  Read more

    0
    0
    1 Answer

    • Top Answer By Meghdeepa Mondal on 23-Nov-2020

    Ans. Jagran Lakecity University offers two BTech (Hons) courses in CSE. Although the number of students for engineering degrees is not much at the institute and the institute is not reputed for its engineering degrees, the placement cell works hard to provide decent placement opportunities to the students. Students are provided with assistance for all placement related activities like Group Discussion (GD), Personal Interview (PI), etc. Placements: The placement statistics for JLU Bhopal in BTech according to the 2020 placements are as follows. In the last placement drive, the placement average was 100%. The highest CTC received by the students was 10 LPA. The average CTC received overall including the students of BTech CSE last year was 4 LPA. The main recruiters are Apple inc., Infosys, Reliance inc., Jaro Educations, Genpact, Yash Technologies, Ennoble IP. Students at JLU-SOET are placed in numerous putative corporations with sensible packages. Besides placement opportunities, the institute also offers internships and organizes career fairs to provide the students with good opportunities for their future. The required eligibility to seek admission for the BTech CSE degree at the institute is 50% in the 12th Standard Examination with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics as an obligatory subject from a recognized board. Students also require a valid JEE score. The institute offers decent placement for the BTech CSE courses and there is a separate industry relation cell that prepares students for the placement. The institute also conducts alumni meets which help the students get in contact with the alumni who are associated with big MNCs.Read more

    0
    0
    1 Answer

    • Top Answer By Karishma Khatri on 23-Nov-2020

    Ans. Jagran Lakecity University School of Law is one of the finest law schools in the country currently. JLU-SOL is a member of the International Association of Law Schools (IALS), associated with the World Federation of United Nations Association (WFUNA), USA. It is also the intellectual partner of the Global Forum on Law, Justice, and Development (A World Bank Initiative). Admission Requirements: The institute offers LLB, BBA LLB, BA LLB, and LLM courses. The LLM course is offered in 3 specializations, i.e. Corporate & Intellectual Property Law, Cyber Law & Cyber Security, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice. Undergraduate Courses: 12th pass with 50% and above is required from a recognized board in order to seek admission for LLB, BA-LLB, or BBA-LLB courses. Selection is done either by CLAT/LSAT or the JLUET examination followed by a personal interview. Postgraduate Courses: Graduation with 50% aggregate is required for the LLM program. Admission is done based on CLAT PG / AILET PG/ JLUET score followed by a personal interview. Campus Life: The institute offers a state-of-the-art Moot Court and a comprehensively designed training regime to provide the students with practical exposure from the start of their courses. The institute has a resourceful library with around 14500 books, reputed national and international law journals, and digests, legal and other databases such as SCC Online, Lexis Nexis, AIR Infotech, EBSCO, etc. Fee Structure: The fee structure of the academic year 2020 for the Law courses is as follows. Course Course Duration Annual Fees BBA LLB(Hons.) 5 Years INR 1.95 lakhs BA LLB(Hons.) 5 Years INR 1.95 lakhs LLB 3 Years INR 95000 LLM 1 Year INR 1.3 lakhs Placements: The placement statistics for JLU Bhopal in Law according to the 2020 placements are as follows. The placement average for the institute was 100% according to last year’s placement. The highest and lowest salary package offered by the institute was 10 LPA and 3.5 LPA respectively. In Madhya Pradesh JLU SOL is one of the best as compared to other private law schools like Career College of Law, Rajeeb Gandhi College, LNCT University, etc. So, yes, you should select JLU because it offers placements in reputed firms with a decent package. It has achieved 100 percent placements and students get recruited in companies like Taj, Marriott, etc.Read more

    0
    0
    1 Answer

    Report


    Bachelor of Science [B.Sc] (Medical) Fee Structure in India


    4.02 K (Minimum Fee)PUBLIC COLLEGES1.52 L (Maximum Fee)
    55.04 K (Average Fee)
    8.22 K (Minimum Fee)PRIVATE COLLEGES5.56 L (Maximum Fee)
    87.47 K (Average Fee)

    Bachelor of Science [B.Sc] (Medical) Fee Structure by State


    Punjab

    17 KPUBLIC COLLEGES1.33 L
    53.72 K
    24 KPRIVATE COLLEGES5.56 L
    1.01 L

    Haryana

    4.02 KPUBLIC COLLEGES1.45 L
    31.93 K
    12.73 KPRIVATE COLLEGES1.65 L
    70.12 K

    Delhi NCR

    4.02 KPUBLIC COLLEGES60 K
    27.79 K
    14.62 KPRIVATE COLLEGES1.65 L
    67.19 K

    Himachal Pradesh

    74.3 KPUBLIC COLLEGES1.52 L
    1.13 L
    8.22 KPRIVATE COLLEGES1.52 L
    86.66 K

    Chandigarh

    64.78 KPUBLIC COLLEGES71.06 K
    68.96 K
    24.5 KPRIVATE COLLEGES1.8 L
    80.07 K

    Comments

    Comments


    1 Comment
    S
    Shagufa Shaikh

    can we do mbbs after this course? what will be the duration of mbbs after this course

    05 Dec, 2019 01:26
    S
    Shobhna Chaturvedi

    Hi Shagufa, yes, you can do ,MBBS after pursuing this course. Course duration will be same as 5 and half years.

    05 Dec, 2019 10:19

    - No more comments -

    ×