Doctor of Law or LLD is an advanced degree in law of 3-year duration which involves an exploration of language-based learning disabilities, including the many inherent characteristics, psychological,developmental, linguistic and cultural correlates. Candidates need to pass Master of Law successfully in order to be eligible to apply for LLD course.
The curriculum involves a study of areas of receptive and expressive language, (including speaking, listening, reading & writing modalities), cognitive aspects of communication (attention, memory, sequencing, problem solving and executive functioning), and social aspects of communication (challenging behavior, ineffective social skills, lack of communication opportunities.
The curriculum is designed to train eligible candidates in effective intervention strategies, and interaction and personal qualities needed to collaborate with students, families and other professional colleagues to provide the most appropriate model of service delivery for children and adolescents with LLD.
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Admission to LLD program is generally done on the basis of merit obtained in various entrance exams followed by a round of Personal Interview in some institutes. Some such entrance exams conducted for the course vary from institution to institution. Some of the top institutes which offer the course include:
Corporate Firms, Law Institutions, Legal Consultancy, Law Enforcement Agencies, Courts or Judiciary are some of the top recruiting areas for those pursuing LLD course. The average salary offered to successful postgraduates of the course ranges between INR 40,000 and 90,000 monthly.
Listed below are some of the major highlights of the course.
|Course Name||Doctor of Law|
|Course Level||Doctorate Degree|
|Examination Type||Semester System|
|Admission Process||Merit obtained at the level of LLM, entrance tests and interviews in case of some institutes|
|Average Course Fee||INR 5K to 5 Lacs|
|Average Starting Salary||INR 4 to 20 Lacs|
|Top Recruiting Areas||Corporate Firms, Law Institutions, Legal Consultancy, Law Enforcement Agencies, Courts or Judiciary|
The average tuition fee charged in India for the course ranges between INR 5,000 (government institutes) to 5 lacs (private institutes).
Listed below are some of the renowned institutes in India that offer LLD:
|College Name||College/Institute||Average Annual Fees in INR|
|National Law School of India University||Bangalore||68,333|
|National Law University||New Delhi||65,833|
|Chanakya National Law University||Patna||38,000|
|Banaras Hindu University||Varanasi||1,700|
|National Law University||Jodhpur||65.8K|
|Karnataka State Law University||Hubli||5.81K|
|Mats University||Raipur||1.2 lacs|
|Mats School of Law||Raipur||1.2 lacs|
Listed below are the basic minimum criteria of eligibility needed to be fulfilled for admission to the course.
Admission to the course is done in 2 stages:
Subsequently, qualifying candidates are required to submit a research proposal of about 10 to 12 pages. The research proposal needs to contain the title, a statement of purpose and background information on the subject, hypothesis and methodology, a research design. The research proposal for inter-disciplinary research ought to have components which have a bearing on legal theory, review and reform.
Applicants are selected based on their research proposal and the report put together by the board of the PG Council.
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A semester- wise breakup of the course’s syllabus is given here.
|Course 1||Course 2|
|Research Methodology||Constitutional Law (Part A) and Jurisprudence (Part B)|
|Nature of Research – An Introduction||Part A|
|What is Research||Constitutional Law|
|Relevance of Legal Research||Preamble|
|Objective of Legal Research||Fundamental Rights and Duties|
|Need for Legal Research and Importance of inter-disciplinary approach||Directive Principles of State Policy|
|Significance of Legal Research in India||Judiciary|
|Legal Research as a profession in India||Executive|
|Types of Research||Union State Legislative Relations|
|Doctrinal or Traditional Research||Emergency Provisions|
|Non-doctrinal or Empirical Research||Amendment to the Constitution of India|
|Descriptive and Analytical Research||Writ Jurisdiction|
|Applied and Fundamental Research||Part B|
|Qualitative and Quantitative Research||Jurisprudence|
|Law Reform Research||Nature and Source of Law|
|Historical Research.||Positivism, Natural Law Theory, Sociological Jurisprudence|
|Sociological Research||Rights and Duties|
|Research Processes||Concepts of Possession and Ownership|
|Identification of Research Problems||Judicial Process and Social Transformation|
|Review of Literature||Judicial Activism|
|Selection of a Research Problem||Social Justice|
|Formulation of a Hypothesis||Empowerment of women|
|Research Design||Course 3|
|Hypothesis||Seminars/Presentations in the areas of Specialization (Optional)|
|Methods of Investigation and tools for collection of data||Options for areas of Specialization|
|Primary Data method||Public International Law|
|Experimental and Participatory/ Scientific Method||Law of Contracts: General Principles|
|Case Study Method||Law of Torts|
|Survey Method||Law of Crimes: General principles|
|Discussion Method||Environmental Law|
|Observation Method||Cyber Law|
|Mail Survey Method||Family Law|
|Questionnaire (Open ended and Close ended)||Human Rights|
|Pilot Study Method||Business Law|
|Secondary Data Method||Any other area/ topic as per the requirement|
|Case Law Method|
|Cumulative Record Cards|
|Tabulation and Evaluation of Data|
|Advantages and Limitations of Sampling|
|Theoretical basis of Sampling|
|Probability and Non- Probability Sampling|
|Classifications of sampling|
|Simple Random Sampling|
|Non- random sampling|
|Sampling and Non- Sampling Error|
|Analysis and Interpretation of Data|
|Application of Content Analysis in Legal Research|
|Analysis of aggregate Data|
|Legal input Analysis, the ideal and the practicable|
|Data Processing- Summarizing of data, Codification and Tabulation|
|Writing a Research Report- Types, Contents and steps involved in drafting of a Report|
|Scientific Tools in Research|
|Use of SPSS and other packages in Legal research|
|Writing the research report/Bibliography/Presentation styles|
LLD offers useful preparation for several different careers. The first of these is academic work, such as in academic journals, doctrinal examination, observational research, and other options are NGOs, government organizations, doctrinal or empirical research etc.
Some of the popular professional avenues open to such postgraduates are listed below with the corresponding salaries offered for the respective positions.
|Job Title||Job Description||Average Annual Salary in INR|
|Law Professor||Law Professors are former lawyers that are involved in the career of teaching prospective advocates of justice.||11,50,000 - 45,60,000|
|Legal Researcher||Legal Researchers conduct research in aspects of law, in support of an organization or individual, involving the express purpose of advancing learning in a specific zone of law.||9,80,005 - 23,40,000|
|Judge||Judges review authentic briefs, conflicts and evidence presented by the obstruction and the arraignment (criminal law cases) of all kinds of cases. They offer assistance and to juries and direct them in their commitments and obligations.||12,00,000 - 34,00,000|
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