Masters of Laws (LL.M.) is a 2-year post-graduate degree in Law. LL.M. degree allows a law graduate to specialize in one of many legal sub-streams. The basic eligibility for this program is an undergraduate law degree from any recognized university with minimum aggregate marksas per the particular institutes' requirement.
There are more than 200 Institutes in India which offer LLM courses.
An LL.M. program is of two years duration. The average tuition fee for the course ranges from INR 1 to 6 Lacs. Entrance Test for admission in this course is conducted for admission of students in the LLM degree course.
After completion of the course, an LL.M. graduate can find employment in any of the sectors which require legal expertise and work as Lawyers, Legal consultants, Indian Legal Services, Advisors, Solicitor, Legal Writer etc. Average entry level salary for LL.M. graduates are INR 12,000 to 30,000 per month.
|Examination Type||Semester System|
|Eligibility||Bachelor’s degree in the stream of law or social science with 55% as aggregate|
|Admission Process||Entrance Tests: CLAT, AILET, LSAT|
|Top recruiting organizations||High court, Supreme court, High State court, AZB and partners, Quislex Legal Services, Pangea 3 global services, Clutch Group, etc.|
|Top recruiting areas||Courts, Top law firms, Counsel and Corporate houses|
|Top job profiles||Lawyer, Judge, Notary, Oath administrator, etc|
|Course Fee||INR 1 to 6 Lacs|
|Average Starting Salary||INR 2 to 30 Lacs|
The course enables the students to be specialized in the field of law and legal affairs of the country. This course is designed to give an overview of trademarks and trademark law and practice in countries around the world. There will also be some attention given to various international treaties, conventions and agreements. The focus will vary from historical, philosophical, legal and even practical topic. LL.M. course is generally of 2 years duration in which each year is comprised of two semesters with various subjects based on thesis and research work according to the curriculum of the university. There are a few universities in India like Symbiosis Law School, Pune and Jindal Global Law School, Sonepat which offer 1 year LL.M. program.
Students of LL.M. who do not wish to pursue a legal profession immediately after the completion of the course can always opt for further studies option. Available options are M.Phil. program or Ph.D. program in the law which is offered by many universities such as University of Delhi, University of Madras, University of Calcutta, and National Law School.
Below mentioned are few specializations that can be pursued by the student to gain an in-depth knowledge about a specific subject
|LLM Business Law||LLM Constitutional Law|
|LLM Criminal Law||LLM Human Rights|
|LLM Intellectual Property Rights||LLM International Law|
|LLM Corporate Law||LLM Labour Laws|
|Name||Location||Average fee (in INR)|
|NALSAR University of Law||Hyderabad||83,500|
|Gujrat National Law University||Gandhi Nagar||89,000|
|Jindal Global Law School||Sonepat||4,25,000|
|Faculty of Law, Banaras Hindu University||Varanasi||30,000|
|National Law University||Delhi||77,700|
|Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law||Patiala||95,000|
|Faculty of Law, Jamia Millia Islamia||New Delhi||8,550|
|Army Institute of Law|
The LL.M. program can be pursued only by the students who have successfully completed their under-graduation in law i.e. LL.B/B.L. Degree/5 Year LL.B. Degree course under 10+2+5 from any recognized university with at least minimum aggregate marks as per institutes requirement.
Certain seats are reserved or are allocated to Foreign Nationals. Students can take admission through common entrance test held by the universities.
Generally, universities offering LL.M. course conduct an Entrance Test for admission to the program. The application forms for this course are available in the month of May every year.
The entrance test paper contains around 150 questions which can be both objective and subjective in nature. The duration of the exam is 2 hours which includes negative marking for objective type questions. The marks deducted are usually 1/4th of the marks allocated to the question.
The marking scheme is not fixed for all the universities, it may vary accordingly. The long essay type generally contains 4 questions with 25 marks each. The syllabus for LL.M. entrance exam generally covers the following topic.
After the entrance test, various universities conduct tie-breaking round for the candidates who have scored equal marks. The candidates are shortlisted on the basis of their performance in entrance test and tie-breaking round. Shortlisted candidates are further called for a counselling session and are then allotted respective colleges.
Some universities offer distance education for candidates who wish to continue learning through distance education. Some universities like National Law University and Acharya Nagarjuna University offer distance education.
Students have to study some common papers in the 1st semester but from 2nd semester there are few subjects according to the specialization selected by the students. As part of the course, students also undergo an internship with Law Firms.
The weightage of internal and external marks are, generally, 60% and 40% respectively. The teaching methods include lectures, seminars, tutorials, and presentations. The internal assessment depends upon the performances of the students in presentations, tutorials, seminars, viva, projects, assignments etc. The exams are of 100 marks each.
The foundation courses are compulsory for every student to study in 1st semester. The other optional courses are choice subjects which are selected by students according to their interest.
There are many sub fields available for specialization for LL.M. students. Some of these are:
When it comes to syllabus, different universities may have different structure but generally the subjects and topics covered as part of the curriculum are similar. Below is an overview of the general syllabus for LL.M.
Law and social transformation in India
Law and social change, Religion, community and the law, Women and the law, Children and the law
The subject is designed to create awareness of Indian approaches and economic problems in the context of law as a means of social control and change amongst people.
Principles of constitutionalism, Federalism as an aspect of constitutionalism, New challenges to constitutionalism, Justice delivery system in India
The objective is to study how far does the constitutionalism of India is being achieved in Indian Legal System
Legal research and methodology
Precepts, Hypothesis and research work, Techniques and methodology, Conduct of research
This course introduces various methodologies of research in the legal field.
Nature of judicial process, Special dimensions, Judicial process in India, Constitutional amendments
This course aims to study the nature of the judicial process and roles of judges as policy makers.
Group -1: Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
Human rights and jurisprudence, International human rights law, Protection and enforcement of human rights in India, Human rights education
This is a specialization course and deals with aspects of Human rights and various laws framed to ensure basic human rights to every citizen.
Group -2:Alternative Dispute Resolution
Evolution and concept of ADR, Arbitration law in India, International commercial arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation and negotiation, Practical trainings in ADR
This is an elective which focuses on dispute resolution without a trial.
Group -3:Intellectual Property Rights
Nature, emergence and development of IPR’s, Copyright law & neighboring law, Patents law, Law relating trademarks, Law relating to designs and geographical indications, Historical background
It is a specialization which deals with trademark laws and intellectual property rights.
Group -4:International Trade Law
WTO and International trade law, Regulation of IT in India, Settlement of IT disputes, International sale & carriage of goods, International investment laws, International commercial arbitration
This is an elective course which focuses on international trade laws and conflict resolution on matters of trade between parties of different nations.
Group -5:Corporate Law
Law of corporate management & governance, Consumer protection laws, Regulation of capital markets & foreign investment, Corporate taxation, Banking & insurance laws, Law of corporate finance & securities regulations
This course studies how different stakeholders in a company such as directors, creditors, consumer and environment interact with each other.
Law students and professionals mostly pursue the LL.M. to gain expertise in a specialized field of law, for example in the area of tax law or international law. Many law firms prefer job candidates with an LL.M. degree because it depicts that a lawyer has acquired advanced, specialized legal training, and is qualified to work in a multinational legal environment. Many lawyers prefer to do LL.M. to practice in United States as foreign lawyers are eligible to apply for a bar exam.
In contemporary world, law has become an important aspect required to maintain order in a community. From products we buy at supermarkets to travelling abroad, everything involves some sort of legal contract between two parties. Law has seeped in every aspect of our lives, thus making it one of the more in-demand career choices.
In the competitive world that we live in, it is required to have a specialized degree in law to land some of the top-notch and lucrative jobs. Hence an LL.M. degree is a must have for a promising career in legal services.
After completion of LL.M. some obvious career options are in the legal field. They can work in both Public and Private sectors. Certain fields which employ LL.M. graduates are:
Some of the job profiles for LL.M. graduates and their job description is given below:
|Job Profile||Description||Average Salary (in INR)|
|Advocate||Advocate is a key profession in the legal career in India. To perform his duties, he must have a lot of knowledge of the laws and plenty of experience in human behaviour and psychology.||6 to 7 Lacs|
|Magistrate/Judge||It is the most cherished position in legal career or in the judicial system in India.||10-12 Lacs|
|Notary||Notary also known as Notary Public, is a qualified and experienced lawyer appointed by the state or central government recommended by the court.||6 Lacs|
|Oath Commissioner||Oath Commissioner all known as Commissioner of Oath is a freshly qualified lawyer appointed by the Registrar of High Court under the provisions of Law.||1 to 3 Lacs|
|Trustee||A Trustee is under a legal obligation to administer a property for a specified purpose.||-|
|Legal Document Reviewer||A Legal Document Reviewer/Derivative’s job is to negotiate and review various kinds of legal documents and draft responses, ancillary documents etc.||8 – 8.5 Lacs|
|Legal Consultant/Associate||A Legal Consultant/Associate assists in contract summarization, contract management, legal research, drafting, litigation and research related projects.||4.8 Lacs|
Some of the top private companies which recruit LL.M. graduates for legal job profiles are:
The initial salary for an LL.M. graduate depends highly upon the sector they work in and the job profile they hold. Below is an approximation of Law professionals in different sectors.
Apart from the industry of employment, salary also varies according to the job profile held. The graph below throws a light on the entry level, median and maximum salary for different job profiles in the legal field.
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