Master of Legislative Law in Human Rights or L.L.M in Human Rights is a 2-year postgraduate program which can be pursued in full-time, part-time and distance learning modes. The whole program is divided into four semesters of six months each, and students having a Bachelor’s degree in L.L.B/ B.L. or any other equivalent qualification from a recognized university can apply for the course.
Candidates are selected for admission based on their performance in the last qualifying exam and a relevant entrance exams like:
In India, some of the leading law universities and colleges offering the course, which charges an average tuition fee ranging between INR 50K and 2 Lac, varying across institutes are:
The course is designed for aspirants interested in learning about the basic rights that every human being inherits and issues related to women and gender, labour, refugees, children and criminal justice.
Successful postgraduates of the course can find a job in various government and private organizations and in areas like Colleges & University, NGOs, Human Rights Agencies, Social Welfare Departments, etc. where they can earn a monthly salary ranging between INR 20K and 70K, at an initial level, depending upon candidate’s expertise and experience in the field.
Some of the major highlights of the course are listed below:
|Course Level||Post Graduate|
|Basic Eligibility Criteria||A Bachelor’s degree in L.L.B./ B.L. or equivalent|
|Admission Process||Counseling based on performance in qualifying exam and an entrance exam.|
|Examination Type||Semester System|
|Major Entrance Exams||CLAT PG, DU LLM Entrance Test, ILI CAT, IPU CET, GNLU, BHU LLM Entrance Exam, etc.|
|Total Course Fee||INR 50K to 2 lacs|
|Top Recruiting Areas/Fields||Colleges & University, NGOs, Human Rights Agencies, Social Welfare Departments, Government Organizations, etc.|
|Top Recruiters||Red Cross, National and State Human Rights Commissions, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiatives, Oxfam International, CRY, Human Right Watch, Amnesty International, Liberty, Miracle Foundation, etc.|
|Job Positions||Government Relations State Advocacy Officer, Communication and Documentation Officer, Research Associate, Client Relationship Manager, Human Rights Lawer, Lecturer/Professor, etc.|
|Average Starting Salary||INR 2 Lac to 8 Lac|
Human Rights is a specialized branch of law that includes the study of various laws and rights that every individual possess. It provides a specialization in the wide range of legislations that are useful in handling the violations and deprivation of human rights in a legal way and contribute to the society by ensuring a fair and unbiased environment.
The course equips candidates with an in-depth knowledge about various legislations and legal and conceptual framework of the international, regional, sub-regional and domestic human rights protection systems and deal with violations and victimization related to the issues concerning right to food, right to health, right to education, rights of women against violence and exploitation, rights of children against abuse and exploitation and their violation based on caste, religion and region.
The course focuses on preventing and ending human rights abuses in all regions of the world, and during the program candidates learn about monitoring human rights development, writing case studies and reports on human rights conditions, engaging in advocacy to publicize and reduce human rights violations, litigation, lobbying, and promoting human rights practices in social and political structures.
One of the major objectives of the program is to produce professional lawyers who are highly efficient and have the capability to successfully operate in and deal with new challenges in the society related to human rights violation and also pursue higher degree studies in the discipline.
In India, there are a large number of law colleges and institutes that provide Master’s degree in Human Rights, but only a few of them are considered to be good for the pursuance of the course. Mentioned below are the names of some such colleges along with their corresponding location and fee charged by each, annually.
|College Name||City||Average Annual Fees|
|Faculty of Law, University of Delhi (DU)||New Delhi||-|
|Nalsar University of Law||Hyderabad||INR 83,500|
|Gujarat National Law University (GNLU)||Gandhi Nagar||INR 89,000|
|O.P. Jindal Global University, Jindal Global Law School (JGLS)||Sonipat||INR 4,25,000|
|Faculty of Law, Banaras Hindu University (BHU)||Varanasi||INR 30,000|
|National Law University (NLUD)||New Delhi||INR 77,500|
|Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law (RGNUL)||Patiala||INR 95,000|
|Hidayatullah National Law University (HNLU)||Raipur||INR 79,000|
|Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University (RMLNLU)||Lucknow||INR 73,500|
|Faculty of Law, Jamia Millia Islamia University (JMI)||New Delhi||INR 8,550|
|Army Institute of Law (AIL)||Mohali||INR 50,200|
|Bharati Vidyapeeth New Law College (NLC)||Pune||INR 40,000|
|Faculty of Law, University of Calcutta||Kolkata||INR 3,89,000|
|University College of Law, Bangalore University||Bangalore||-|
|Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT)||Kochi||INR 6,000|
|National Law School of India University (NLSIU)||Bangalore||INR 80,100|
|The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS)||Kolkata||INR 1,29,000|
|The National Law University||Bhopal||INR 1,40,000|
|Symbiosis Law School||Pune||INR 92,000|
All the candidates aspiring to pursue a Master’s degree in Human Rights are first required to fulfill all the below mentioned criteria, in order to be eligible to apply for the course.
It is also advisable for students to have a work experience of minimum 24 months, as many reputed institutes prefer candidates with professional experience.
Generally, most of the law colleges and institutes providing the course admit candidates based on their performance in the last qualifying examination (L.L.B.) and an entrance exam, conducted at either State/National level or at institutional level.
However, there are a few reputed institutes that conduct two more additional rounds of group discussion and personal interview, wherein their general aptitude and knowledge for the course is examined by highly qualified & experienced faculty members.
Based on the student’s performance in all these rounds, a merit list is then released by each institute announcing the names of all the selected candidates.
Also, students who have appeared or are appearing for a degree examination or those waiting for their final year examination’s result are also eligible to apply. But admission to such candidates will be given provisionally, until they satisfy all the mentioned criteria.
Some of the entrance examinations conducted in the country have been listed as follows:
Classified below is the semester-wise breakup of the course’s curriculum:
|First Semester||Second Semester|
|Concept & Classification of Rights||Emerging Concept of Human Rights|
|Concept of Human Rights||Human Duties, Responsibilities & its Effectuation|
|Concept of Human Duties||International Obligation|
|Dialectics of Human Rights||Human Rights & Criminal Justice|
|Third Semester||Fourth Semester|
|Jurisprudence & Human Rights: Lego Philosophical perspectives||Human Rights and International & Regional Perspectives: Implementation Mechanism|
|Constitutional Governance of Human Rights in India||International Humanitarian Law|
|Refugee Law||People’s Rights to Self-determination|
|Extension Activities & Educational Tours||Dissertation Research|
Candidates interested in pursuing a career in Human Rights would ideally possess a genuine interest in learning about the legal and conceptual framework of human rights along with negotiation and conflict resolution skills. They should be quick in solving complex problems and should also have the ability to unravel legal complexities.
One must have good communication and interpersonal skills, as the line of work requires them to deal with a number of clients. Also, they should have an analytical and critical mind and a good knowledge to analyze every situation and take the best decision. Network building and management skills are also necessary in order to be a good match for the course.
Also, those who are interested in pursuing higher degree courses or a teaching career in the discipline can opt for the course, as it sets a good base.
Professionals in Human Rights are in great demand all over the world, due to the increasing human rights abuses and conflicts in the society. Today, such professionals are required at every level, domestic, sub-regional, regional and international to handle legal decisions and provide guidelines to ensure that activities are conducted within the human rights limits and no individual is deprived of his/her birth rights. Therefore, it is a strong and versatile career option which has all the traits to make it an excellent career option.
Candidates after completing the course successfully can either work for an organization or can provide service individually. They can find a job in various areas like MNCs, Government Organizations, The Judiciary, NGOs, Colleges & Universities, etc. where they can earn a monthly salary ranging between INR 15,000 and 50,000 depending upon the type of organization, which will gradually increase with increase in time, experience and expertise in the field.
Candidates interested in learning more about the discipline and going for further research can opt for higher degree courses like Ph. D. (Doctorate of Philosophy), M. Phil. (Master of Philosophy), etc.
Some of the popular professional avenues open to such postgraduates are listed below along with the basic job responsibilities and salary associated to each one of them.
|Job Profile||Job Description||Average Annual Salary|
|Human Rights Lawyer||A Human Rights Lawyer investigates, evaluates, and defends people in litigation cases involving torture and abuse and may also solicit and use media attention to promote awareness of human rights.||INR 3 Lac to 7 Lac|
|Research Associate||Research Associates monitor the progress of research projects and coordinate information between departmental sections and perform a complex variety of essays and studies.||INR 2.5 Lac to 5 Lac|
|Lecturer/Professor||A professor/lecturer teaches and motivates students and keeps up with current research activities in their areas of expertise.||INR 4 Lac to 7 Lac|
|Client Relationship Manager||A Client Relationship Manager builds and maintains relationships with clients and conducts business reviews to ensure clients are satisfied with their products and services.||INR 3 Lac to 6 Lac|
|Human Rights Defender||A Human Rights Defender works on cases and contributes to the promotion or protection of human rights laws.||INR 2 Lac to 5 Lac|