A PhD English qualification is conferred on research scholars after completing research, thesis and related coursework in English language. Research scholars who proceed further for a PhD English study various ways of analysing texts, question literature to its depths. Students get training in pedagogic manner.
Colleges focus on emphasising in the dialogue nature of reading, learning and writing in the subject of English. A research scholar can expect an academic and intellectual adventure when wading through the course of PhD English.
|Alert: NTA will conduct CSIR UGC NET 2020 after July 2020 in view of the ongoing lockdown due to COVID 19 pandemic.|
The PhD English courses are up to 5 years in duration. This depends on the university offering the course. During the duration of the course, the students would be learning different theories, texts in the different forms, dialects and sects of English language.
The course confers a doctoral degree to the student after they complete the dissertation. Some universities offer credits for their work. Such credits need to be completed in each year, to be eligible to proceed further.
PhD English: Key Highlights
To be eligible for doing a PhD English course, the student should have completed their Masters degrees. M.A. in English or a M.Phil. is required to be completed before one can take admission to Ph.D. in English. They should gain at least 50% marks in their examinations. Some universities and colleges also open up job applications in research on English. Such positions are usually under the titles of Research Fellows. This could be yet another way to get started with a PhD English course. Some universities have entrance examinations for PhD.
The following table provides information about the top universities that provide PhD English language. We also present information related to admission, fees and placements and entrance examination considered valid for the particular university.
|uniRank||College Name||Admission Process||Average Annual Fees||Average Placement Offer|
|31||Christ University, Bangalore||University Based Entrance Test|
|INR 30,000||INR 3,75,000|
|53||Shiv Nadar University SNU, Greater Noida||Written Test + Interview OR|
|INR 1,10,000||INR 7,00,000|
|57||Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University CSJMU, Kanpur||On the basis of Merit||INR 18,000||INR 4,00,000|
|231||The Northcap University NCU, Gurgaon||60% marks in specialized Masters courses with validCSIR NET||INR 85,000||INR 6,25,000|
|302||Central University of Rajasthan CURAJ, Ajmer||On the basis of Merit, selection interview||INR 18,000||INR 4,50,000|
The fees for the PhD English course varies across the universities in India. University of Mumbai has a fee of INR 2,500 per year. Students have to pay INR 10,000 for submission of synopsis. Thus in total for a PhD English through University of Mumbai, the student incurs INR 20,000 to 30,000. While some other institutes and universities have fees up to 1,20,000 INR per course.
The scope of work towards Research and development in the English language immensely increments with a PhD English degree. Thus the future prospects of a PhD English is in the domain of improving the language and helping the society at large to reduce jargon and appreciate the complexities of the language. Majorly, the focus will be on careers in writing, communication skills and decoding the complexities of age old literature.
Journalism and media is an ever growing sector and has a high demand of PhD English scholars. One can begin their career from the position of editorial assistant for big publishing houses. Advertising agencies, becoming an advertising agency copywriter or a Public relations officer are some of the best positions to start a career after completing PhD English course.
Another exciting career but which would take time to pick up in growing is to become an author of their own books. Publishing your own books on scholastic subjects is also a good career option.
The starting salaries for students completing PhD English average around INR 31,500 per month. The higher side of the salaries can go up to INR 55,000 per month, while the lowest could be around INR 25,000 per month.
The University Grants Commission has created an integrated program which leads to a PhD English. There is a common entrance test for M.Phil - PhD English integrated program. The student will have to secure 50% marks in the conducted examination. In this course, the M.Phil will be of a 6 month duration instead of 1 year. Eligible students will then continue into PhD, while the rest will continue with the M.Phil course and reappear for the entrance examination.
The basic eligibility criteria for gaining admission for PhD English courses is completion of the Masters level course. It could be M.A. in Arts or M.Phil. Students appearing for the final examinations can also apply for the entrance examination. Such students should prepare for the entrance examinations like GATE, CSIR-NET or the State Level Eligibility tests (SLETs).
It is important to remember that examination scores from these examinations are a mandatory requirement for admissions.
Also to remember is SLET scores are relevant only for the state. But examination scores of GATE and CSIR-NET are valid throughout all Indian universities. GATE score is accepted only by some Indian universities, while CSIR-NET score is accepted by all Indian universities.
The admission process for the PhD English course in India is usually straightforward.
Steps to apply for the course:
A meritorious student can get admission to PhD English in a number of ways.
Apart from the above entrance exams, university level examinations are also conducted by respective universities. Some universities conduct admissions on the basis of merit.
Important dates of Entrance Exams
|Examinations||Conducting body||Eligibility criteria||Date of Examination|
|GATE 2021||National Coordination Board - GATE||Completed relevant Masters education or appearing for the final examination||1st week of February 2021|
|CSIR-NET||National Testing Agency NTA||Completed relevant Masters education or appearing for the final examination||July 2020 (Tentative)|
|State Eligibility Test SET||Individually by universities of states||Completed relevant Masters education or appearing for the final examination||Decided by each state individually|
How to Prepare for PhD English Entrance Exams?
Admissions in India for Top PhD English colleges is a straightforward process.
The table below gives highlights about the PhD English course. Get to know eligibility, course fees, average salary and top recruiting companies for candidates completing PhD English courses.
|Full-Form||Doctor in Philosophy in English|
|Duration||3 to 5 years|
|Examination type||Annual, Subjective|
|Eligibility||M.A. in English or M.Phil. in English|
|Admission Process||Based on direct interview of short-listed candidates.|
|Course Fee||INR 2000 to 1.25 Lakh per year|
|Average Salary||INR 4 to 8 lakhs|
|Top Recruiting Companies||HCL, IBM, TATA Consultancy, Adobe, KPMG companies, HP, Lenovo, Indiatimes, Hindustan Times, Zee News, CNN, IBN7, Delhi University|
|Job Positions||Editorial Assistant for big publishing houses, Advertising agency copywriter, Public relations Officer, Author|
PhD English literature is a niche course and is offered only by a few universities and colleges in India. PhD English is available at most of the universities.
Below table gives a comparison between both the courses.
|Parameters||PhD English||PhD English Literature|
|Full form||Doctor in Philosophy in English||Doctor in Philosophy in English Literature|
|Domain||English language all applications like literature, filmography, broadcast media||English Literature only|
|Admission Process||Based on entrance examinations and direct interviews||Direct interview of shortlisted candidates|
|Course Fee||INR 2,000 to 5 lacs||INR 12,000 to 1,25,000|
|Average starting salary||INR 4 to 8 lacs per annum||INR 5 to 8 lacs per annum|
|Top recruiting companies||HCL, IBM, TATA Consultancy, Adobe, KPMG companies, HP, Lenovo, Indiatimes, Hindustan Times, Zee News, CNN, IBN7, Delhi University||Adobe, Penguin Random House, Hachette India, Balaji Motion Pictures, Reliance Big Entertainment|
Source: College Websites
The table below gives a list of top colleges in India, where one can take admission for PhD English. Find details related to fees, admission process, accreditation and location for these colleges:
|Loyola College||Chennai||NAAC||INR 6,000|
|Christ University College||Bangalore||NAAC, UGC||INR 35,000|
|Chandigarh University College||Chandigarh||AICTE, AIU, NAAC, UGC||INR 85,000|
|Presidency College||Chennai||AICTE, NAAC||INR 5,000|
|NIMS University College||Jaipur||AICTE, AIU, BCI, PCI, UGC||INR 1,41,000|
|Banasthali Vidyapith||Jaipur||NAAC, UGC||INR 1,44,500|
|Presidency University College||Kolkata||NAAC, UGC||INR 14,500|
|Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT)||Bhubaneshwar||AICTE, BCI,DCI, INC, MCI||INR 75,000|
|Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)||Kanpur||UGC||INR 64,050|
|Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)||Bhuvaneshwar||AICTE||INR 31,568|
The table below gives a comparison between the Loyola College and Presidency College of Chennai. Both of them provide PhD English courses.
Find out the difference between them in key areas.
|Parameters||Loyola College||Presidency College|
|Overview||Loyola college was established in 1925 and has been granted autonomous status since 1978. This college provides UG, PG and Doctoral courses in Arts, Sciences and Commerce.||Presidency college was established in 1840. It provides UG, PG and doctoral courses in Arts, Science and Commerce.|
|Average Fees||INR 6,000 per year||INR 5,000 per year|
|Average Salary Package||INR 3,50,000||INR 4,00,000|
|Top Recruiting Companies||Amazon, GenMedic, IBS, Stratagem Solutions||TCS, Infosys, Adobe|
Source: College Websites
A PhD English course is about deep introspection and societal awareness. While the names of the subjects could change from university to university, PhD students learn through the following domains.
The table below gives a detailed syllabus of the PhD English course. The syllabus is a comprehensive presentation. Individual universities may add some more sections as may be applicable.
|Paper I: Research Methodology (Theory)|
|Research: Nature and functions||Types of literary research|
|Error, evidence and truth||Textual study and the search for authoritative text|
|Problems of Authorship||Search for Origins|
|Literature review: necessity, methods and utilization||Research Design|
|Selecting and limiting the topic||Making Notes|
|Development of goals and theory (Meaning – Importance – Types –Sources – Characteristics –Forms – Difficulties in Formulation-Testing).||Data collection: process, sources, types and tools|
|Data: classification, tabulation, presentation and analysis||Offering suggestions and recommendations|
|How to write a dissertation/ thesis?||What is a research paper? How to write a research paper?|
|Documentation Skills||Abbreviations from MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (sixth edition).|
|A scholar and a critic: Vocations||–|
|Preparing a Research Proposal in first term.||Preparing at least two Research Papers one in each term.|
|Learn to use libraries and online sources for research. Students will visit British library, INFLIBNET and at least two university libraries and prepare a project.||–|
|Paper II: English Language and Literature (Theory)|
|Part A Language||ELT: an introduction (History, Place, Position, Problems, Prospects and Future)|
|Language acquisition and language learning||Listening|
|Writing||Communicative Language Teaching|
|Computer aided language learning||English for academic purposes|
|English for specific purposes||Business English Communication: Business letter, Report Writing, E Communication|
|Basic concepts of Language Testing and assessment||Teaching Literature|
|Paper III Translation: Theory|
|Part A Theory of Translation||Translation: An Introduction.|
|Nature, meaning and its function.||Principles of correspondence|
|Theories of Translation||Art of translation|
|Sorts, process, issues and impediments of interpretation||Time: tense, mood and aspect|
|Concepts and notions||Idiom: from one culture to another|
|Transference, free rendering and transcreation||Translation and transliteration|
|Machine Translation||Translating literary, religious and scientific texts|
|Indian Literature in English Translation||Translation Theory: An Indian Perspective|
|Part B: Books in Translation:||Patel, Pannalal: Endurance: A Droll Saga (Manvi Ni Bhavai) trans. Prof. V. Y. Kantak, Sahitya Akademi Publications.|
|Tagore, Rabindranath: Gitanjali, trans. William Radich, Penguin.||Beckett, Samuel: Waiting for Godot, Faber and Faber.|
|Gandhi, M.K.:My Experiments with Truth (Satya na Prayogo) trans. Mahadevbhai Desai, Navjivan Press.||–|
|Interpretation of least 30 pages from English to L1 or the other way around.||Students will learn to use computers in translation.|
|Translation of at least two oral discourses from English into L1 and vice versa. Audio CD and recording will be used for the same.||–|
|Paper IV: Dissertation|
|The research scholar will be required to write a dissertation on a topic to be selected in consultation with the faculty.||The research scholar can opt for translating a book containing not less than 100 pages from L1 into English or vice versa in consultation with the faculty. The researcher will describe, prepare and talk about issues, issues, arrangements, and so forth confronted amid deciphering the work in forward.|
|Ghosh, Amitav: The Shadow Lines, Mariner Books, 2005||Literature Without Borders|
|Bhagat, Chetan: One Night at the Call Center, Rupa, 2005.||Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, Penguin.|
|Computer orientation||Use of Language Learning Software to improve LSRW.|
|Computer aided language learning and teaching.||–|
The first year starts with Research Methodology which is a theoretical approach to the subject. Further, the student gets to prepare their research proposal for their PhD. They would also focus on elective subjects at 500 level and participate in pedagogy based seminars.
In the further years, there is a focus on advanced theories. Students are expected to take up independent studies while logistically assisting their professors with UG courses.
The following is the list of Indian Authors in English literature:
|Name of the book||Author|
|Malgudi Days||R.K Narayan|
|Untouchable||Mulk Raj Anand|
|Train to Pakistan||Khushwant Singh|
|The Room on the Roof||Ruskin Bond|
The following is the list of international Authors in English literature:
|Name of the book||Author|
|The Tragical Historie of Hamlet||William Shakespeare|
|Pride and Prejudice||Jane Austen|
|Songs of Innocence and of Experience||William Blake|
|David Copperfield||Charles Dickens|
The jobs available after completion of PhD English are related to teaching institutions and creative sectors.
Being the first most places of learning English, schools, colleges are the first areas of importance where PhD English qualified scholars can apply for jobs. They can start with Teacher Assistants and progress to become Head of Departments.
Those PhD holders who have certification in Cinematography or broadcast media can work in the creativity sector as Critics. Critics are like moderators of content.
Critics can also be in publisher houses who would check and moderate books before getting finally published.
Following table gives the types of Job profiles that can be gained by research scholars completing PhD English. It is important to remember at this juncture, that a PhD pass out would start at a nominal level or even at entry levels. It is only after a few years of work experience that the candidate becomes eligible for higher positions. But this is usually at a faster rate as compared to Graduates and Post graduates with Masters qualifications.
Given below is a table which shows few of the job profiles after completion of PhD English.
|Job Profile||Job Description||Average Annual Salary|
|Head of Department English||The Head of Department for English department takes care of the teachers in the department. They look after the teachers in the department and improve the teaching standards for the students.||INR 12,94,509|
|Movie Critic||A critic assesses the quality of a motion picture. These could be in films, print and broadcast media.||INR 4,65,378|
|Content Writer||This job role is popular among content based websites. The need for experts in this domain is rising and growing popular.||INR 5,00,849|
|Copy Editor||This job role is popular in publishing houses. The appointee has to proofread and make write ups error free.||INR 6,19,322|
|Technical Writer||Technical writer creates and drafts correspondences for programming, scientific and literary domains.||INR 8,12,993|
The following graph gives an idea about the salaries of various job profiles and the average annual salaries offered for the same.
Source: Salary Expert
A PhD doctor possesses exceptional analytical and observation skills. Such skills are absolutely required towards the growth of the language, improving the usage by the locales. It also helps to create people who would focus on improving the social produce of a community.
Some of the private companies that engage PhD English scholars are:
Even the government sector looks for scholars of high qualifications.
They are required by government companies like:
The future of PhD English is very bright. Although being a Hindi dominant country, English is used in almost every possible sector and domain. Working as critics, writing books, critic for novels and motion pictures are the current career aspects in India.
Technical writers and certified translators are the need of today in every sector of industry.
Ques. What is the scope of PhD English?
Ans. There is a wide scope of opportunities after completing PhD English. Career options in the field of literature writing, teaching, authorship and public relations officers open up to connect with people.
Ques. Would it be worth doing a PhD English?
Ans. If the meaning of worth is the qualification, then definitely a PhD has the highest worth of study in the language of English. If the worth being searched for is in the career options, then the meaning could differ. A research scholar starts as an assistant for an editor or may start as an information officer. Now even graduate students would get these positions and the salaries may not be hugely different than that of a graduate student.
But if a PhD scholar grows in their career, accepts various challenges, then further growth and benefit of PhD is visible.
Ques. Are there international opportunities for candidates with PhD English?
Ans. Candidates with PhD English would have a lot of scope. Although everyone learns English language, there are only a few works which are done in English language. But English speaking countries would present a lot of opportunities for PhD English language scholars. When we say international opportunities, these mean going abroad to work for a foreign company, or may also mean to work from within India for the international company.
Ques. Can I get admission to Ph.D. after completing B.A.?
Ans. In India, PhD can be pursued only after completing Masters in a relevant subject. Thus a Masters degree is necessary with a focus on English literature.
Ques. Is there a Dual degree option available?
Ans. The University Grants commission has created an integrated course with M.Phil-PhD In this course the M.Phil. is shortened for 6 months duration. The student needs to give an entrance examination after 6 months in the course. Those who gain 55% in the examination will be able to move forward into PhD while the rest will continue with M.Phil.
Ques. What is better for a career; B.A., M.A., M.Phil or PhD English?
Ans. India is a multilingual country with Hindi being the national language. An education in languages is considered to be the utmost important. A graduate student with a B.A. qualification can get jobs in various functional levels. They can take up positions in public relations or even teaching in primary schools. Doing M.A. or M.Phil. opens up opportunities in the secondary and professional course levels in career. When a student goes for PhD there are various opportunities which open up in research, development and growth of the language. Thus a PhD would not necessarily help in government jobs. The salary levels of Masters and PhD holders are almost comparable. But if the PhD scholar aims for a career in English speaking countries, then it would definitely be meritorious.
Ques. What research topics are relevant for PhD English?
Ans. Some of the research topics that can be sought for are:
Ques. How is life after completing PhD English?
Ans. A PhD scholar gets a qualification of Doctor in Philosophy. A PhD scholar is considered as the top most expert in the English language. Jobs in India are available with publisher houses, colleges. Jobs outside India have a brighter scope. A PhD is the top most education qualification being conferred on to successful students.
Ques. What is the registration process for PhD courses at various universities?
Ans. While each university has their own rules for giving admissions, they are governed by the UGC. UGC has laid out requirements for Masters qualification and an entrance test to be conducted. Some universities also consider the score of NET to take admissions in PhD in English. The course has a specified layout of curriculum for 3 to 5 years duration. This includes the academic part, research and development of the Thesis part and teaching part.
Ques. What is a Critics job in the production domain?
Ans. A Critic is a person responsible to assess and rate motion pictures. Critics are required for print and broadcast media. PhD English when covering film studies, news coverage and cinematography with a 4 year certification are able to work in specific roles with a high salary pay scale.