Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering) - Course Overview

  • STREAM

    ENGINEERING

  • DURATION

    3 YEARS

  • COURSE

    Mechanical Engineering

  • COURSE TYPE

    Doctorate/M.Phil

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Top Colleges, Eligibility, Entrance Exams, Syllabus, Admission 2020-2021

    Lubaba Shaheen Lubaba Shaheen
    Content Writer

    PhD Mechanical Engineering is a doctorate level course in Mechanics. The course may have a duration of 5 to 8 years. PhD Mechanical Engineering is a research-based course.

    Throughout the duration of the course, students get to learn various mechanical engineering skills. One learns about various machines and related equipment. The students who wish to pursue PhD Mechanical Engineering must have a good grip over Maths and Science. 

    Some of the topics taught to the students in this course are Mathematics for Engineering Research, Research Methodology, etc. Apart from that, certain branch-specific topics are also taught as a part of the curriculum.

    Check top PhD in engineering colleges in India.

    Key Highlights of Phd Mechanical Engineering

    • Full-Form: Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering
    • Duration: 2 to 5 years
    • Eligibility: Post Graduation in Mechanical Engineering or in any other related field.
    • Admission Process: Entrance based and personal interview
    • Entrance exams: UGC NET, JNUEE, GATE, etc.
    • Top Colleges: Indian Institute of technology, Madras, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, NIT Trichy, etc.
    • Average course fees: INR 96,000 to INR 3,16,000 per year.
    • Job Options: Lecturer, Junior Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Executive Engineer, Researcher
    • Average Salary Package: INR 3.5 to INR 10 Lakhs
    • Top Recruiting areas: Power plants, manufacturing areas, chemical plants, steel plants, educational institutes.
    • Top Recruiting Companies: Amazon, Cisco, Citi Bank, IBM, Facebook, Accenture, Cognizant, Citrix, Bosch, Mu Sigma, NTPC, etc


    In order to be eligible for PhD Mechanical Engineering course, the candidate must complete his/ her post graduation in engineering or technology from a recognized university with minimum 75% marks. Candidates having master degree in any other related-course with 65% marks can also apply for PhD Mechanical Engineering.

    The admission process for the course is different for different institutes. You may either be admitted based on the marks acquired by you in your post graduation or you may have to sit for an entrance test.

    Some of the top colleges offering PhD Mechanical engineering are listed below.

    NIRF Rank 2020College NameAdmission ProcessAverage Fee (First-year)Average Salary
    1Indian Institute of Technology, MadrasEntrance testINR 19,670INR 12.79 LPA
    2Indian Institute of Technology, New DelhiEntrance testINR 34,900INR 20-25 LPA
    3Indian Institute of Technology, BombayEntrance testINR 73,000INR 10-15 LPA
    9NIT Trichy, TiruchirapalliEntrance testINR 85,000INR 7 LPA
    30Birla Institute of Technology and Science, PilaniEntrance testINR 1,10,125INR 6-7 LPA

    The average tuition fee charged for the course is INR 96,000 to INR 3,16,000 per year. The fee is different for government and private institutions.

    The average salary earned by a PhD Mechanical Engineering professional is INR 10 Lakhs. The salary will start to increase as you gain more and more experience.

    After completing the course, the candidates may seek jobs in various government and private sectors. Some of the most common job profiles include assistant engineer, mechanical engineer, executive engineer, researcher, etc.

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Admission Process

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Admission Process

    One can refer to the points given below for detailed admission process of the course.

    • Each university follows its own admission process. In most cases, the admission is done based on the marks acquired by you in your post graduation. However, some universities require you to sit for an entrance test.
    • Few of the most popular entrance tests include GATE and NET UGC. Once you have cleared the entrance test, you will be called to proceed with the further stages of the admission process.
    • The application forms are released mostly in June. You must submit the application form before the deadline. You can also consult the official website of the respective colleges or universities for detailed information regarding the admission process.
    ALERT: As of now, most of the admission process including the entrance exams has been postponed due to the ongoing pandemic.


    Merit based selection

    • The students need to fill the application form of the university. The application forms are available both physically as well as in online mode.
    • In merit based selection, the candidates will be selected based on the marks acquired by them in their graduation and postgraduation.
    • The percentage requirement will depend on the number of students applying for the course and the number of available seats.

    Entrance based selection

    • Students need to register for any particular entrance exam. they must also fill the application form of the colleges they are interested in.
    • Students need to take the entrance test. Once qualified, they become eligible for any further stage of admission.
    • After the exam, students are required to appear for a personal interview round as well.
    • The finally shortlisted students are offered admission to the college in the respective course.
    IIT Madras AdmissionNIT Trichy Admission
    IIT Bombay AdmissionBITS Pilani Admission

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Eligibility

    Fulfilling the eligibility criteria is a must if you wish to be a part of any of the top PhD Mechanical Engineering colleges in India. The eligibility criteria for pursuing PhD Mechanical Engineering is mentioned below:

    • A candidate must complete his masters in engineering or technology with the required grades. A candidate having a postgraduate degree in any science subject can also apply for the course. However, they will have to clear the cut-off for GATE.
    • Bachelor degree holders in engineering or technology and also apply for the course. They need to have a minimum 75% marks in graduation.
    • Relaxation of marks is given to the SC /ST / OBC/ PwD or any other underprivileged candidates.
    • If the college conducts an entrance test, then clearing the test also becomes an important eligibility criterion.
    eligibility

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Entrance Exams

    PhD Mechanical Engineering students may have to sit for an entrance test to get admitted to a college of their choice. The pattern of entrance tests may vary from college to college.

    The candidates who clear the entrance test may either take admission to the college or they may have to appear for an interview. The examination dates for the current academic year are being rescheduled because of the coronavirus crisis.

    Here are some of the most popular entrance tests for the PhD Mechanical Engineering candidates:

    • UGC NET Exam:  The UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) is the most popular entrance test for PhD candidates.The examination is held for admission to the PhD courses in different streams. Most colleges accept students on the basis of their UGC NET results.
    • JNUEE: JNUEE is the entrance test for the PhD students of Jawaharlal Nehru University.Jawaharlal Nehru University. It is held once every year in the month of June. Application forms will have to be submitted by the month of April.
    • GATE: GATE is the national level entrance test for the engineering candidates. The examination is mainly conducted for the M.Tech students but some colleges accept GATE score for PhD admission also. The examination is held every year in the month of February.
    • UGC CSIR NET: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research – National Eligibility Test is the entrance test for the Junior Research Fellowship post. The test is held twice a year in offline mode.
    • DTU PhD Entrance Exam 2021: Delhi Technical University conducts an entrance test for admitting the PhD students. The examination is mostly held in December. An interview may take place after the interview.
    Entrance TestMode of ExaminationDate of ApplicationDate of Examination (Tentative)
    UGC NET 2021OnlineApril 2021June 2021
    JNUEE 2021OnlineApril 2021June 2021
    GATE 2021OnlineJanuary 2021February 2021
    UGC CSIR NET 2021OfflineMarch 2021June 2021
    DTU Ph.D. Entrance Exam 2021OfflineNovember 2021December 2021

    How to prepare for the PhD Mechanical Engineering entrance test?

    Entrance tests are a mandatory part of the admission process of some of the most popular Universities in India. In order to secure your place in that particular college/ university, you need to score well in the admission test. So, here are a few preparation tips for you.

    • You must know your syllabus properly. This is the first and the most basic step of preparation. Until and unless you are not familiar with the syllabus, you will not be able to get a good score in the entrance test.
    • Know the examination patterns and the type of questions that are frequently asked in the examination. In most cases, you will have to face multiple-choice questions. So, you must practise such questions to make yourself familiar with the examination pattern
    • Try to get a rough idea about the number of questions that you must answer in order to secure a good rank in the examination. This strategy will definitely help you to get a good rank in the entrance test. 
    • Put more focus on the important sections as these are the sections from where questions are asked more frequently. While you are revising the chapters, you must concentrate on these sections.
    • Practise questions from sample papers and previous years’ question papers. Here, we have provided a few links to the previous year’s question papers and the sample papers. This will help you in your preparations.
    • Do not stress out. Any kind of stress will act as a hindrance and prevent you from acquiring a good score in the entrance test. Be confident about your preparations.
    • Consult important books. Read through the chapters properly. You can also watch YouTube videos or take guidelines from an expert. 

    How to get admission in a good college?

    Getting admitted to the college of your dreams is never an easy task. It requires a lot of dedication and hard work from your part. These are a few important guidelines that you must follow if you wish to get admitted to a college of your choice.

    • First, you need to find out whether the college you are applying for is actually good or not. For that, you should read through the reviews and ratings properly. You can also consult the ex-students and ask for their reviews.
    • Try to know the placement scenario of the institute. You must have an idea about the average CTC offered to the candidates after completion of the course. Do not opt for a college that provides poor placement to the candidates.
    • Having a very good score in your graduation and postgraduation will help you to fulfil the eligibility criteria and get admitted to a college of your choice.
    • If you want to get admitted to a top-notch college, you must have at least 60% marks in graduation and postgraduation. 
    • If the college you want to apply for conducts an entrance test, then you must perform well in the examination. Otherwise, you will not be able to qualify for the further stages of the admission procedure.

    PhD Mechanical Engineering: What is it about?

    PhD Mechanical Engineering: What is it about?

    • A PhD Mechanical Engineering is a technical course that requires the students to have a strong knowledge of subjects like thermodynamics, mechanics and scientific computing.
    • Throughout the duration of the course, the students will get to know about mechanical engineering skills, technical drawing and computing skills. All these skills will help the students to design various machines and other equipment.
    • The course will help students to understand real-life problems so that they are able to come up with out-of-the-box solutions to the problem. So, we can say that Mechanical Engineering isn’t completely based on technical studies; it also has an analytical approach.
    • The course has excellent scope for research activities. Research on this subject can give birth to various innovative ideas which can ultimately lead to the betterment of the society.
    • Another speciality of the PhD Mechanical Engineering course is that it is basically an all-purpose engineering degree and Mechanical Engineering students can make a career in other Engineering fields as well.

    PhD Mechanical Engineering: Course Highlights

    Course LevelDoctorate
    Full-formDoctorate of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering
    Duration2 to 5 years
    EligibilityPostgraduate degree in engineering/ technology or any other science subjects or bachelors degree in engineering/ technology.
    Admission ProcessDirect Admission or on the basis of Entrance test.
    Course FeeINR 96,000 to 3,16,000 per year.
    Average SalaryINR 3,37,899
    Job PositionsLecturer, Junior Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Executive Engineer, Researcher
    Top Recruiting AreasPower plants, manufacturing areas, chemical plants, steel plants, educational institutes.
    Why Study PhD Mechanical Engineering?

    Why Study PhD Mechanical Engineering?

    PhD Mechanical Engineering is quite a prosperous course. Some important features of the course are mentioned below:

    • The Mechanical Engineering course has an analytical approach. It will allow the students to consider various practical problems and come up with technical solutions to these problems. They may come up with new approaches to solve the problems.
    • After completing the course, the students will be able to successfully design machines based on user requirements. They put all their innovativeness together and create something new for the world.
    • The PhD Mechanical Engineering students get excellent career opportunities. They may work at sectors like power plants, chemical plants, manufacturing companies and so on. They are also free to pursue a career in other fields of engineering.
    • The students may work as a junior engineer, assistant engineering or executive engineer at various companies. They may also conduct research in subjects related to Mechanical Engineering. They may work at research labs and other organizations. 
    • The students can also become a lecturer and impart knowledge to other students. The average salary earned by the PhD Mechanical Engineering students is INR 3.37 LPA. The salary will increase with experience.
    PhD Mechanical Engineering Vs PhD Electrical Engineering

    Course Comparison

    PhD Mechanical Engineering vs PhD Electrical Engineering

    PhD Mechanical Engineering and PhD Electrical Engineering are two different courses pertaining to two different branches of engineering. Some key differences between these two are given below.

    ParametersPhD Mechanical EngineeringPhD Electrical Engineering
    QualificationDoctor of Philosophy in Mechanical EngineeringDoctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering
    Course OverviewPhD Mechanical Engineering is a research-based course. It mainly deals with designing new machines for different purposes.PhD Electrical Engineering is a research based course. It deals with the technology of electricity. In this course they learn how to design circuits to perform specific functions and meet their requirements
    EligibilityPost Graduation with a minimum of 60% marks.Post Graduation with a minimum of 60% marks.
    Admission ProcessDirect admission or Entrance testDirect admission or Entrance test.
    Average FeeINR 96,000 to INR 3,16,000 per yearINR 60,000- INR 5,00,000
    Average Salary10 LPA12 LPA
    CollegesIIT-Delhi, IIT-Bombay, IIT-Kanpur, BITS Pilani, Chandigarh University, NIT TrichyIIT-Gandhinagar, IIT-Hyderabad, Sharda University, Birla Institute of Technology (BIT Ranchi) - Jharkhand.
    Recruitment sectorsManufacturing companies, petrol companies, chemical companies, etc.Academic Institutions, Consultancies, Private Companies
    Top Job ProfilesJunior Engineer, Executive Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Researcher.Electrical engineer, Program manager, Electrical technician, Application engineer
    phd mechanical engineering fee vs phd electrical engineering fee
    Phd Mechanical Engineering salary Vs Phd Electrical enginnering Salary
    PhD Mechanical Engineering Top Colleges

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Top Colleges

    PhD Mechanical Engineering is taught in various universities in India. Some of the top colleges or universities offering PhD Mechanical Engineering are mentioned below:

    The Week Rank 2020College NameCityAverage First Year FeesAverage Salary
    1Indian Institute of Technology, MadrasMadrasINR 19,670INR 12.79 LPA
    2Indian Institute of Technology, New DelhiNew DelhiINR 34,900INR 20-25 LPA
    3Indian Institute of Technology, BombayBombayINR 73,000INR 10-15 LPA
    4Indian Institute of Technology, KanpurKanpurINR 64,050INR 15.8 LPA
    7Indian Institute of Technology, GuwahatiGuwahatiINR 18,150INR 11 LPA
    9NIT Trichy, TiruchirapalliTiruchirapalliINR 85,000INR 7 LPA
    10Indian Institute of Technology, IndoreIndoreINR 70,900INR 15 LPA
    11Indian Institute of Technology, VaranasiVaranasiINR 46,815INR 15 LPA
    18Institute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiINR 64,500INR 4-8 LPA
    30Birla Institute of Technology and Science, PilaniPilaniINR 1,10,125INR 6-7 LPA

    College Comparison

    There are ample number of colleges in India offering PhD Mechanical Engineering course. The comparison of top 3 colleges based on various parameters is given below:

    College NameIndian Institute of Technology, MadrasNIT Trichy, TiruchirapalliBirla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
    OverviewIndian Institute of Technology is definitely one of the best colleges in India. The institute has a lot of departments and it offers a variety of courses to its students.NIT Trichy is one of the top NITs of India. It offers 10 bachelor degree courses and 28 master degree courses to the students. The college provides excellent placement facilities.BITS, Pilani is one of the top private colleges of India. It focuses on courses in Science, Engineering and Management. The Institute follows a No Reservation Policy.
    LocationChennaiTiruchirapalliRajasthan
    NIRF Ranking1930
    Average Fees (1st year)INR 19,670INR 85,000INR 1,10,125
    EligibilityMinimum 6.5 CGPA in mastersMinimum 60% in mastersMinimum 50% in masters
    Admission ProcessEntrance test and interviewEntrance test and interviewEntrance test
    Average CTCINR 12.79 LPAINR 7 LPAINR 6-7 LPA
    Top Recruiting CompanyAmazon, Cisco, Citi Bank, IBM, Facebook, Accenture.Cognizant, Citrix, Bosch, Mu Sigma, NTPC. Adobe, Amazon, IBM Genpact, Flipkart, Facebook.
    Average CTC offered by top colleges
    PhD Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

    • The syllabus for the first semester is the same for all PhD courses. After that, the students will start gaining in-depth knowledge about their specialization which is  Advances in Mechanical Engineering.
    • The research part is completely independent and the candidates will have to arrange for the fundings all by themselves.

    The syllabus for the PhD Mechanical Engineering can be divided into two parts. The part wise syllabus is given below:

    Part 1Part 2
    Research MethodologyThesis
    SeminarSeminar
    Mathematics for Engineering ResearchResearch work I
    Branch Specific topicsResearch Work II

    Important Books

    If you want to perform really well in your PhD Mechanical Engineering course, then you must read all the important books pertaining to the subject. Here is a list of some of the most popular books for PhD Mechanical Engineering candidates:

    • Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers- Eugene A. Avallone, Theodore Baumeister, and Ali Sadegh
    • Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design-Richard G. Budynas, J Keith Nisbett
    • Fundamentals of Thermodynamics- Claus Borgnakke and Richard E. Sonntag
    • Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Dynamic Systems- William J. Palm
    PhD Mechanical Engineering Job Prospects and Career Options

    PhD Mechanical Engineering Job Prospects and Career Options

    • The PhD Mechanical Engineering students are always open to a large number of career options.
    • On successful completion of their course, the students will be exposed to various opportunities.
    • Throughout the duration of the course, the students will be taught a variety of topics that will help them to secure jobs as a mechanical engineer.

    Some of the top job profiles available to such professionals are given below:

    Job Profile Job DescriptionAverage Annual Salary
    Junior EngineersThey may acquire jobs at power plants, manufacturing companies, etc.INR 2 to 5 LPA
    Executive engineersThey carry out groundworks as a technician at various engineering-related industries. INR 15 to 17 LPA
    Mechanical Design EngineerThey evaluate various mechanical systems for research-based operations.INR 3 to 6 LPA
    Research ScientistThey are responsible for conducting research works in various fields related to mechanical engineering.INR 5 to 8 LPA
    LecturerThey work at educational institutes and impart knowledge to the students in areas related to mechanical engineering.INR 9 to 11 LPA

    The salary trend graph for some of the top job profiles available to such professionals is given below:

    Salary Trends
    PhD in Mechanical Engineering Future Scope

    PhD in Mechanical Engineering Future Scope

    The future of PhD Mechanical Engineering course in India has always been quite bright. The students are left with a lot of options to build a successful career.

    • PhD Mechanical Engineering students may take up jobs in either public or private sectors. Some of the popular sectors offering jobs to the Mechanical Engineering candidates are power plants, steel plants, manufacturing sectors, etc.
    • The candidates may conduct research on various topics related to mechanical engineering at different research labs across the country.
    • They may work as research scientists in various reputed foreign universities. The students may also open their own ventures.
    • The academic career path is also open for the PhD Mechanical Engineering students. They may teach at colleges and universities. They can also apply at governmental educational institutes.
    • Some of the most popular job profiles for Mechanical Engineering students are assistant engineer, executive engineer, research scientist, junior engineer. The students may also apply for managerial jobs at various sectors.
    PhD Mechanical Engineering: FAQs

    PhD Mechanical Engineering: FAQs

    Ques. Is it worthwhile doing a PhD Mechanical Engineering?

    Ans. Yes, PhD Mechanical Engineering is a very prosperous course and you will get endless opportunities to make a career in this field.

    Ques. What are career options after getting a PhD mechanical engineering from an old IIT?

    Ans. You may opt for an academic career and teach at colleges and universities. You can also conduct research in various fields. The students can also look for jobs in government and private sectors.

    Ques. How many years does it take for a PhD mechanical engineering?

    Ans. It takes around 5-8 years to complete your PhD Mechanical Engineering.

    Ques. What will be the job profile of the students after completing their PhD Mechanical Engineering?

    Ans. The common job profiles are Junior Engineer, Executive Engineer, Researcher, Lecturer/Professor, etc.

    Ques. Is an entrance test necessary for the PhD Mechanical Engineering admission?

    Ans. A number of popular Universities conduct entrance tests for admission to the PhD courses. The most popular PhD entrance test is NET UGC.

    Ques. Do I have to appear for an interview to get admitted to the PhD Mechanical Engineering course?

    Ans. Some colleges like the top IITs conduct an interview after the entrance test. Only the students who clear the interview can take admission.

    Ques. What is the eligibility criteria for a PhD Mechanical course?

    Ans. The candidates require a minimum of 50% to 60% marks in their post graduation course.

    Ques. What are the best colleges or universities in India for a PhD Mechanical Engineering course in India?

    Ans. Some of the best colleges/ universities are Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, NIT, Trichy

    Ques. What is the average first-year tuition fee for the PhD Mechanical Engineering students?

    Ans. The average tuition fee is between INR 96,000 to INR 3,16,000 per year.

    Ques. Can the students from the general science stream pursue a PhD Mechanical Engineering?

    Ans. Yes, the general science students are also eligible to opt for a PhD Mechanical Engineering. However, they need to fulfil re eligibility criteria.

    Ques. What should be my salary after completing my PhD Mechanical  Engineering?

    Ans. Your expected salary should be around 3.37 LPA.

    Ques. Has the examination dates for the PhD Mechanical Engineering courses been rescheduled?

    Ans. Yes, all examination dates have been rescheduled due to COVID-19 crisis.

    Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering) Fee Structure in India


    25.67 K (Minimum Fee)PUBLIC COLLEGES4.59 L (Maximum Fee)
    1.48 L (Average Fee)
    36.86 K (Minimum Fee)PRIVATE COLLEGES7.5 L (Maximum Fee)
    2.28 L (Average Fee)

    Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering) Fee Structure by State


    Karnataka

    36.6 KPUBLIC COLLEGES3.5 L
    1.44 L
    45 KPRIVATE COLLEGES3.5 L
    2.06 L

    Tamil Nadu

    32.79 KPUBLIC COLLEGES1.96 L
    1.01 L
    2.35 LPRIVATE COLLEGES2.35 L
    2.35 L

    Maharashtra

    47.17 KPUBLIC COLLEGES2.44 L
    1.63 L
    50 KPRIVATE COLLEGES4.51 L
    2.59 L

    Uttar Pradesh

    25.67 KPUBLIC COLLEGES25.67 K
    25.67 K
    36.86 KPRIVATE COLLEGES4.9 L
    2.25 L

    Delhi NCR

    45 KPUBLIC COLLEGES4.53 L
    1.81 L
    70 KPRIVATE COLLEGES6.62 L
    2.8 L

    Madhya Pradesh

    98 KPUBLIC COLLEGES4 L
    2.05 L
    1.31 LPRIVATE COLLEGES7.5 L
    3.28 L

    Gujarat

    79 KPUBLIC COLLEGES2.5 L
    1.57 L
    1.34 LPRIVATE COLLEGES2.1 L
    1.63 L

    Haryana

    32.2 KPUBLIC COLLEGES4.53 L
    1.84 L
    1.65 LPRIVATE COLLEGES6.62 L
    3.42 L

    Rajasthan

    2.7 LPUBLIC COLLEGES2.7 L
    2.7 L
    1.01 LPRIVATE COLLEGES3.6 L
    2 L

    Orissa

    30.5 KPUBLIC COLLEGES3.87 L
    1.74 L
    75 KPRIVATE COLLEGES3.87 L
    1.98 L

    Chhattisgarh

    52 KPUBLIC COLLEGES2.5 L
    1.34 L
    90.3 KPRIVATE COLLEGES7.41 L
    3.29 L

    Uttarakhand

    1.58 LPUBLIC COLLEGES3.59 L
    2.35 L
    85 KPRIVATE COLLEGES2.85 L
    2.11 L

    Kerala

    66.11 KPUBLIC COLLEGES1.14 L
    89.81 K
    69.5 KPRIVATE COLLEGES69.5 K
    69.5 K

    Assam

    67.1 KPUBLIC COLLEGES67.1 K
    67.1 K
    54.45 KPRIVATE COLLEGES3.41 L
    1.71 L

    Himachal Pradesh

    1.7 LPUBLIC COLLEGES4.59 L
    2.71 L
    4.59 LPRIVATE COLLEGES4.59 L
    4.59 L

    West Bengal

    31 KPUBLIC COLLEGES1.15 L
    73.15 K
    70 KPRIVATE COLLEGES3.46 L
    2.39 L

    Jharkhand

    1.56 LPUBLIC COLLEGES2.28 L
    1.92 L
    1.75 LPRIVATE COLLEGES2.57 L
    2.16 L

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