GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution syllabus is based on the topics of graduation level. Also, the syllabus has been revised and a new section of Applied Ecology & Evolution is added in the syllabus. The maximum number of questions will be asked from the core subject and the remaining questions are from general aptitude.
- GATE 2021 EY question paper will consist of 65 questions worth 100 marks and candidates need to solve the paper in three hours. Candidates who are planning to appear for Ecology & Evolution paper must go through the syllabus and exam pattern. Check GATE 2021 Exam Pattern
- Ecology & Evolution paper does not include the engineering mathematics section.
- In GATE 2021, all those candidates who are planning to appear for GATE EY paper as their first paper can only opt for GATE XL as their second paper.
After qualifying GATE 2021, candidates can apply for M.Tech courses offered at IITs, NITs, etc. Other than admission to M.Tech courses, candidates can apply for GATE PSU Recruitment process. Read the article to know more about GATE Ecology & Evolution syllabus, books, pattern, books, and much more.
- How to use GATE 2021 Virtual Calculator?
- What will be the Validity of GATE 2021 Score?
- Online Coaching for GATE 2021
GATE Ecology & Evolution Syllabus
GATE 2021 Syllabus for Ecology and Evolution
The syllabus of GATE exam is based on graduation level. Applicants are advised to check the complete syllabus before starting the preparation of the exam.
Section 1: Ecology
- Fundamental concepts: Abiotic and biotic components; scales (population, species, community, ecosystems, biomes); niches and habitats
- Population ecology: Population growth rates (density dependent/independent); metapopulation ecology (colonization, persistence, extinction, patches, sources, sinks); age- structured populations
- Interactions: Types (mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, competition, parasitism, predation, etc); ecophysiology (physiological adaptations to abiotic environment); prey- predator interactions (Lotka-Voltera equation etc)
- Community ecology: Community assembly, organization and succession; species richness, evenness and diversity indices, species-area relationships; theory of island biogeography
- Ecosystems structure and function: trophic levels and their interactions; nutrient cycles; primary and secondary productivity.
Section 2: Evolution
- History of Evolutionary thought: Lamarckism; Darwinism; Modern Synthesis
- Fundamentals: Variation; heritability; natural selection; fitness and adaptation; types of selection (stabilizing, directional, disruptive)
- Diversity of life: Origin and history of life on earth; diversity and classification of life; systems of classification (cladistics and phenetics)
- Life history strategies: Allocation of resources; tradeoffs; r/K selection; semelparity and iteroparity
- Interactions: Co-evolution (co-adaptations, arms race, Red Queen hypothesis, co- speciation); prey-predator interactions (mimicry, crypsis, etc)
- Population and Quantitative genetics: Origins of genetic variation; Mendelian genetics; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; drift; selection (one-locus two-alleles model); population genetic structure (panmixia, gene flow, FST); polygenic traits; gene-environment interactions (phenotypic plasticity); heritability
- Molecular evolution and phylogenetics: Neutral theory; molecular clocks; rates of evolution; phylogenetic reconstruction; molecular systematics
- Macroevolution: Species concepts and speciation; adaptive radiation; convergence; biogeography
Section 3: Mathematics and Quantitative Ecology
- Mathematics and statistics in ecology: Simple functions (linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, etc); concept of derivatives and slope of a function; permutations and combinations; basic probability (probability of random events; sequences of events, etc); frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics (mean, variance, coefficient of variation, correlation, etc).
- Statistical hypothesis testing: Concept of p-value; Type I and Type II error, test statistics like t-test and Chi-square test; basics of linear regression and ANOVA.
Section 4: Behavioural Ecology
- Classical Ethology: Instinct; fixed action patters; imprinting; learnt behavior; proximate and ultimate questions
- Sensory ecology: Neuroethology; communication (chemical, acoustic and visual signaling); recognition systems
- Foraging ecology: Foraging behaviour; optimal foraging theory
- Reproduction: Cost of sex; sexual dimorphism; mate choice; sexual selection (runaway selection, good-genes, handicap principle, etc); sexual conflict; mating systems; parental care
- Social living: Costs and benefits of group-living (including responses to predators); effect of competition (scramble and contest) on group formation; dominance relationships; eusociality; kin selection; altruism; reciprocity; human behaviour.
Section 5: Applied Ecology & Evolution
- Biodiversity and conservation: Importance of conserving biodiversity; ecosystem services; threats to biodiversity; invasive species; in-situ conservation (endemism, biodiversity hotspots, protected areas); ex-situ conservation; conservation genetics (genetic diversity, inbreeding depression); DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding
- Disease ecology and evolution: Epidemiology; zoonotic diseases; antibiotic resistance; vector control
- Plant and animal breeding: Marker assisted breeding; genetic basis of economically important traits
- Global climate change: Causes; consequences; mitigation
Sample Question from EY Syllabus
Sample Question of GATE Ecology & Evolution
- Sample Question 1: A researcher found n number of woody species in a one-hectare tropical forest plot. He employs the same method in another one-hectare plot in the same forest. Based on the principle of species-area curves, the expected number of new species in the second plot is _________?
- Sample Question 2: While developing his theory of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin was influenced by the work of __________?
- Sample Question 3: Highly repetitive sequences are most likely to be prevalent in regions of the genome with ______ recombination rate and originate via ______ crossing over. Choose the right pair of words that completes this statement correctly.
- Sample Question 4: Which of the following statements best explains the patterns of leaf-litter decomposition over time shown in the figure below?
(A) Habitat 1 is cold and wet; Habitat 2 is warm and arid
(B) Habitat 1 is warm and arid; Habitat 2 is cold and wet
(C) Habitat 1 is cold and arid; Habitat 2 is warm and wet
(D) Habitat 1 is warm and wet; Habitat 2 is cold and arid
GATE Exam Pattern of EY
GATE 2021 Exam Pattern for Ecology & Evolution
There are a total of 25 papers in GATE exam. Hence, the paper pattern is quite tricky. GATE 2021 Exam Patten is quite different for all papers.
- GATE consists of 3 sections namely General Aptitude, Mathematics and specific subject of the paper
- The paper will be held in online mode (Computer Based Test) in multiple shifts.
- The question paper comprises a total of 65 questions worth 100 marks.
- There are 2 types of questions namely- Multiple Choice type (MCQ) and Numerical Answer Type (NAT).
- The maximum number of questions in GATE is from the core subject.
- The duration of the paper will be 3 hours.
|Subjects||Allocation of Marks|
|General Aptitude||15% of total marks|
|Subject Questions||85% of total marks|
Best Books for GATE EY
Preparation Books for GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution
GATE is a national level competitive exam conducted for admission to M.Tech and Ph.D. courses. GATE is considered as one of the difficult exams. Hence, the preparation to qualify it should be very good. Best books are one of the best ways of preparation. Candidates are suggested to refer good books for better preparation. Thus, we are suggesting some important books for GATE preparation for Ecology & Evaluation.
|Test & Evaluation: Life Sciences / Biotechnology||Pranav Kumar, |
|Animal Behavior: Mechanisms, Ecology, Evolution||Lee C Drickamer, |
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
|Global Philosophical and Ecological Concepts||Rudi Jansma, |
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
|Organic Evolution (Evolutionary Biology)||Veer Bala Rastogi, |
|Games of Life: Explorations in Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior||Karl Sigmund, |
Also Check GATE 2021 Recommended Books
How to Prepare for GATE EY Paper?
Preparation Tips for GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution
- Prepare Time Table: Candidates must schedule their daily time as per their convenience. They must devote 6-8 hours of time fo preparations only. It does not mean you have to study continuously for 8 hours. You can take breaks in between and plan your preparation according to that.
- Prioritize your syllabus: You can prioritize your syllabus based on the difficulty level, number of topics, etc. Setting up the priority totally depends on candidates that in what order they would like to cover their syllabus.
- Take Mock Tests: Candidates must take mock tests to get a better idea about the type of questions and difficulty level of questions. They can also judge their level of performance and preparation. You can also work on your weak areas after appearing for mock tests. Candidates are advised to take the mock tests when their whole syllabus is over. Download GATE Practice Papers
- Do not Panic: Candidates must complete their syllabus on time and save the last 1-2 weeks for revisions. If you are not able to do so then there is no need to panic. You can go through your notes for quick revision before 3-4 days of the exam also. Revisions are the best way to memorize things.
- Stay Motivated: Along with hard work, candidates have to stay motivated also. Have faith in yourself and keep preparing for the exam. Do not compare yourself with others. Concentrate on your preparation plan.
GATE Syllabus of Other Subjects
GATE 2021 Syllabus of Other Subjects
Candidates who are planning to appear for GATE 2021 can check the syllabus of their preferable subjects from the links provided in the table below:
Frequently Asked Questions
GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution FAQs
Ques: What will be major sections in GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution syllabus?
Ans: GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution syllabus will include General Aptitude and core subject. The syllabus will be based on the topics studied at the graduation level. The maximum number of questions will be asked from the core subject and the remaining questions are from general aptitude.
Ques: What will be the marking scheme in GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution and what will be the weightage of each section?
Ans: The question paper will have a total of 65 questions worth 100 marks.
|Subjects||Allocation of Marks|
|General Aptitude||15% of total marks|
|Subject Questions||85% of total marks|
Ques: Do we get an option to select either ecology or evolution in GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution paper?
Ans: No. There will be no such option. Ecology and evolution is one subject and candidates will have to attempt all the questions related to these subjects. General Aptitude and engineering are also compulsory to attempt.
Ques: GATE 2021 Ecology & Evolution syllabus core subject syllabus will be divided into how many parts?
Ans: The core syllabus will be divided into 5 parts or sections:
- Section 1 – Ecology
- Section 2 – Evolution
- Section 3 – Mathematics and Quantitative Ecology
- Section 4 – Behavioural Ecology
- Section 5 – Applied Ecology & Evolution
*The article might have information for the previous academic years, which will be updated soon subject to the notification issued by the University/College.