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GATE 2021 Engineering Sciences (XE) Syllabus, Preparation Tips and Books

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Nikkil Visha

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GATE 2021 Engineering Sciences (XE) syllabus majorly divided into 3 sections. The first section is General Aptitude and the second section is Engineering Mathematics which is named as section A is compulsory for candidates. The third part comprises sections B to H and candidates have to choose any two sections to appear for GATE 2021.

  • The question paper will consist of 65 questions which will be further divided into three sections worth 100 marks. The total time duration provided to complete the exam will be three hours.  Check GATE 2021 Exam Pattern
  • GATE 2021 Engineering Sciences paper has been scheduled to be conducted on Feb 13, 2021 (Saturday) in the afternoon session from 15:00- 18:00 hrs. 
  • Candidates must note that from this year they can sit for a maximum of 2 papers. The second paper/ discipline options for those who have opted XE as first paper are AE/ CH/ ME/ MN/ MT/ PE/ PI/ TF.

Engineering sciences XE section comprises the following subjects/codes:

  • XE-A – Engineering Mathematics
  • XE-B – Fluid mechanics
  • XE-C – Material Science
  • XE-D – Solid mechanics
  • XE-E – Thermodynamics
  • XE-F – Polymer Science and Engineering
  • XE-G – Food technology
  • XE-H – Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

NOTE: Each subject (chosen ones) will carry 35 marks.

GATE is a national level exam which is held for admission to M.Tech/ Ph.D. in the field of engineering and technology. It is conducted on a rotational basis by zonal IITs and IISc Bangalore. Candidates can check the revised Engineering Sciences syllabus for all the sections along with important books and preparation tips below. 

Must Read: 

GATE 2021 XE-A Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-A Engineering Mathematics Syllabus (Compulsory)

Engineering Mathematics is a branch of applied mathematics concerning mathematical methods and techniques that are typically used in engineering and industry. It is an interdisciplinary subject motivated by engineers' needs both for practical, theoretical and other considerations out with their specialization, and to deal with constraints to be effective in their work.

  • Linear Algebra
  • Calculus
  • Vector Calculus
  • Complex variables
  • Ordinary Differential Equations
  • Partial Differential Equations
  • Probability and Statistics
  • Numerical Methods

Direct link to download GATE  Engineering Mathematics (XE-A) syllabus PDF 

Engineering Mathematics Important Books

GATE Mathematics Book
Book Name Author ISBN Number
GATE Engineering Mathematics Abhinav Goel, Suraj Singh 935203550X, 978-9352035502
Higher Engineering Mathematics B.S. Grewal 8174091955, 978-8174091956
GATE 2017: Engineering Mathematics ME Team 9351471977, 978-9351471974
A Textbook of Engineering Mathematics Dr. Sudheer K. Srivastava, Dr. Suyash N. Mishra Dr. Vijai S. Verma 9383758465, 978-9383758463
Wiley Acing the Gate: Engineering Mathematics and General Aptitude Anil K. Maini, Varsha Agrawal, Nakul Maini 8126567430, 978-8126567430

GATE 2021 XE-B Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-B Fluid Mechanics Syllabus

Fluid Mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including mechanical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology. 

Section 1: Flow and Fluid Properties

  • Fluid Properties: Density, viscosity, surface tension, relationship between stress and strain-rate for Newtonian fluids.
  • Classification of Flows: Viscous versus inviscid flows, incompressible versus compressible flows, internal versus external flows, steady versus unsteady flows, laminar versus turbulent flows, 1-D, 2-D and 3-D flows, Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluid flow.
  • Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies and its stability.

Section 2: Kinematics

  • Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluid motion.
  • Concept of local, convective and material derivatives. Streamline, streakline, pathline and timeline.

Section 3: Integral analysis

  • Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) for conservation of mass, linear and angular momentum.

Section 4: Differential Analysis

  • Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows.
  • Inviscid flows - Euler equations and viscous flows - Navier-Stokes equations.
  • Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function and circulation.
  • Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for Couette flow and Poiseuille flow, thin film flow.

Section 5: Dimensional analysis

  • Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity.
  • Buckingham Pi theorem and its applications.
  • Non-dimensional parameters and their physical significance - Reynolds number, Froude number and Mach number.

Section 6: Internal flows

  • Fully developed pipe flow.
  • Empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows: friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation and Moody’s chart.
  • Major and minor losses.

Section 7: Bernoulli’s Equation and its Applications, Potential Flows

  • Bernoulli’s equation: Assumptions and applications.
  • Flow measurements - Venturi meter, Pitot-static tube and orifice meter.
  • Elementary potential flows: Velocity potential function.
  • Uniform flow, source, sink and vortex, and their superposition for flow past simple geometries.

Section 8: External Flows

  • Prandtl boundary layer equations: Concept and assumptions.
  • Boundary layer characteristics: Boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness.
  • Qualitative idea of boundary layer separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, and drag and lift forces.

Direct link to download GATE Fluid Mechanics (XE-B) syllabus PDF 

Fluid Mechanics Important Books

Fluid mechnism book gate
Book Name Author
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Yunus A. Cengel, John Cimbala
A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines R.K. Bansal
A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics R.K. Bansal
Fundamentals of fluid mechanics Bruce Roy Munson
An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics George Batchelor

GATE 2021 XE-C Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-C Materials Science Syllabus

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids. 

Section 1: Classification and Structure of Materials

  • Classification of materials: metals, ceramics, polymers and composites.
  • Nature of bonding in materials:metallic,ionic, covalent and mixed bonding; structure of materials:fundamentals of crystallography, symmetry operations, crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells, primitive cells, crystallographic planes and directions; structures of metals, ceramics, polymers, amorphous materials and glasses.
  • Defects in crystalline materials: 0-D, 1-D and 2-D defects; vacancies, interstitials, solid solutions in metals and ceramics, Frenkel and Schottky defects; dislocations; grain boundaries, twins, stacking faults; surfaces and interfaces.

Section 2: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Phase Transformations

  • Extensive and intensive thermodynamic properties, laws of thermodynamics, phase equilibria, phase rule, phase diagrams (unary and binary), basic electrochemistry.
  • Reaction kinetics, fundamentals of diffusion, Fick’s laws, their solutions and applications.
  • Solidification of pure metals and alloys, nucleation andgrowth, diffusional solid-state phase transformations (precipitation and eutectoid), martensitic transformation.

Section 3: Properties and Applications of Materials

  • Mechanical properties of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites at room temperature; stress-strain response (elastic, anelastic and plastic deformation).
  • Electronic properties: free electron theory, Fermi energy, density of states, elements of band theory, semiconductors, Hall effect, dielectric behaviour, piezo- and ferro-electric behaviour.
  • Magnetic properties:Origin of magnetism in materials, para-, dia-, ferro- and ferri-magnetism.
  • Thermal properties: Specific heat, heat conduction, thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, and thermoelectricity.
  • Optical properties: Refractive index, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Examples of materials exhibiting the above properties, and their typical/common applications.

Section 4: Characterization and Measurements of Properties

  • X-ray diffraction;spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Vis, IR and Raman; optical microscopy, electron microscopy, composition analysisin electron microscopes.
  • Tensile test, hardness measurement.
  • Electrical conductivity, carrier mobility and concentrations.
  • Thermal analysis techniques: thermogravimetry and calorimetry.

Section 5: Processing of Materials

  • Heat treatment of ferrous and aluminium alloys; preparation of ceramic powders, sintering; thin film deposition: evaporation and sputtering techniques, and chemical vapour deposition, thin film growth phenomena.

Section 6: Degradation of Materials

  • Corrosion and its prevention; embrittlement of metals; polymer degradation.

Direct link to download GATE Material Science (XE-C) syllabus PDF

Material Science Important Books

Material science gate
Book Name Author ISBN Number
Material Science and Engineering William F. Smith, Javad Hashemi, Ravi Prakash 1259062759, 978-1259062759
Materials Science and Engineering - SIE William Smith, Javad Hashemi, Ravi Prakash 0070667179, 978-0070667174
Materials Science and Engineering I P Singh 8183600956, 978-8183600958
Materials Science Sedha R.S. 8121901464, 978-8121901468
Basics of Material Science and Engineering Made Easy Editorial Board 9351472078, 978-9351472070

GATE 2021 XE-D Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-D Solid Mechanics Syllabus

Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents. Solid mechanics is fundamental for civil, aerospace, nuclear, biomedical and mechanical engineering, for geology, and for many branches of physics such as materials science.

Section 1: Mechanics of rigid bodies

  • Equivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of determinate trusses and frames; friction; principle of minimum potential energy; particle kinematics and dynamics; dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion; law of conservation of energy; law of conservation of momentum.

Section 2: Mechanics of deformable bodies

  • Stresses and strains; transformation of stresses and strains, principal stresses and strains; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; generalized Hooke’s Law; elastic constants; thermal stresses; theories of failure.
  • Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses; combined stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circular shafts; thin walled pressure vessels; energy methods (Castigliano’s Theorems); Euler buckling.

Section 3: Vibrations

  • Free vibration of undamped single degree of freedom systems.

Direct link to download GATE Solid Mechanics (XE-D) syllabus PDF 

Solid Mechanics Important Books

Solid mechanism GATE BOOK
Book Name Author ISBN Number
Fundamentals of Solid Mechanics: A Treatise on Strength of Materials Gambhir M.L 8120338707, 978-8120338708
Solid Mechanics: Theory, Modeling, and Problems Albrecht Bertram, Rainer Glüge 3319360035, 978-3319360034
Strength of Materials (Mechanics of Solids) R.K. Rajput 9350144786, 978-9350144787

GATE 2021 XE-E Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-E Thermodynamics Syllabus

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

Section 1: Basic Concepts

  • Continuum and macroscopic approach; thermodynamic systems (closed and open); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes on state diagrams; concepts of heat and work, different modes of work; zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature.

Section 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

  • Concept of energy and various forms of energy; internal energy, enthalpy; specific heats; first law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Section 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

  • Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence; reversible and irreversible processes
  • Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems; thermodynamic temperature scale
  • Clausius inequality and concept of entropy; microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy
  • T-s diagrams; second law analysis of control volume; availability and irreversibility; third law of thermodynamics.

Section 4: Properties of Pure Substances

  • Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases
  • P-vT behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and van der Waals equation of state; law of corresponding states, compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart.

Section 5: Thermodynamic Relations

  • T-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relations
  • Maxwell relations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.

Section 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

  • Carnot vapor cycle, ideal Rankine cycle
  • Rankine reheat cycle, air-standard Otto cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle, vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.

Section 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

  • Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them; specific and relative humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, psychrometric chart.

Direct link to download GATE Thermodynamics (XE-E) syllabus PDF 

Thermodynamics Important Books

Thermadynims gate book
Book Name Author ISBN Number
Heat and Thermodynamics Anandamoy Manna 8131754006, 978-8131754009
Thermodynamics Singh Kumar Ashok 9383137967, 978-9383137961
Thermodynamics and An Introduction to Thermostatistics Herbert B Callen 8126508124, 978-8126508129
Engineering Thermodynamics Gupta S.K. 8121942705, 978-8121942706

GATE 2021 XE-F Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-F Polymer Science and Engineering Syllabus

Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. The field of polymer science includes researchers in multiple disciplines including chemistry, physics, and engineering.

Section 1: Chemistry of high polymers

  • Monomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods: addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers and other newer methods of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers, techniques for polymerization-bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.
  • Concept of intermolecular order (morphology) – amorphous, crystalline, orientation states. Factor affecting crystallinity. Crystalline transition. Effect of morphology on polymer properties.

Section 2: Polymer Characterization

  • Solubility and swelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average, weight average, viscosity average and Z-average molecular weights, polymer crystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.

Section 3: Synthesis, manufacturing and properties

  • Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters, Acrylic, PU polymers.
  • Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, Fluoropolymers Thermosetting polymers: Polyurethane, PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester, Alkyds. Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex; SBR, Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE, Speciality plastics: PEK, PEEK, PPS, PSU, PES etc. Biopolymers such as PLA, PHA/PHB.

Section 4: Polymer blends and composites

  • Difference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers for blending, blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics, phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plastic-plastic, rubber-plastic and rubber-rubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites.

Section 5: Polymer Technology

  • Polymer compounding-need and significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics (Antioxidants, Light stabilizers, UV stabilizers, Lubricants, Processing aids, Impact modifiers, Flame retardant, antistatic agents.
  • PVC stabilizers and Plasticizers) and their function, use of carbon black, polymer mixing equipments, cross-linking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.

Section 6: Polymer rheology

  • Flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitions
  • Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, cone-plate rheometer. Viscoelasticity-creep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR.

Section 7: Polymer processing

  • Compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, rubber processing in two-roll mill, internal mixer.

Section 8: Polymer testing

  • Mechanical-static and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughness
  • Conductivity-thermal and electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress cracking resistance.

Section 9: Polymer Recycling and Waste management

  • Polymer waste, and its impact on environment, Sources, Identification and Separation techniques, recycling classification, recycling of thermoplastics, thermosets and rubbers, applications of recycled materials.
  • Life cycle assessment of polymer products (case studies like PET bottles, packaging bags)

Direct link to download GATE Polymer Science and Engineering (XE-F) syllabus PDF  

Polymer Science and Engineering Important Books

GATE XE Polymer Science and Engineering important books
Book Name Author ISBN Number
Textbook of Polymer Science Fred W. Billmeyer 8126511109, 978-8126511105
Specialty Polymers: Materials and Applications Faiz Mohammad 8188237655, 978-8188237654
The Elements of Polymer Science and Engineering Alfred Rudin Phillip Choi 9780123821782, 0123821789
Introduction To Polymer Science And Technology N. B. Singh 8122430074

GATE 2021 XE-G Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-G Food Technology Syllabus

Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.

  • Food Chemistry and Nutrition
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Products Technology
  • Food Engineering

Direct link to download GATE Food Technology (XE-G) syllabus PDF 

Food Technology Important Books

GATE XE Food technology important books
Book Name Author ISBN Number
Training Manual for Food and Beverage Services Mahendra Singh Negi 9385909185, 978-9385909184
Food Science B Srilakshmi 8122438091, 978-8122438093
Question Bank on food Science and Technology U D Chavan 8170358825, 978-8170358824
Foods Facts and Principles N. Shakuntala Mana 8122422152, 978-8122422153

Click Here  To Solve GATE Practice Papers

GATE 2021 XE-H Syllabus & Books

GATE 2021 XE-H Atmospheric & Ocean Science Syllabus

Section A: Atmospheric Science

  • Vertical Structure and Composition of the Atmosphere; Blackbody Radiation and Radiation Balance; Modes of Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere; Greenhouse Effect; Cloud Types; Laws of Thermodynamics; Gas Laws; Hydrostatic Equation; Clausius Clapeyron Equation; Adiabatic Processes, Humidity in the Atmosphere, Atmospheric Stability; Weather and Climate.
  • Navier-Stokes and Continuity Equations; Compressible and Incompressible Fluids; Pressure Gradient, Centripetal, Centrifugal and Coriolis Forces; Geostrophic, Gradient and Cyclostrophic Balances; Circulations and Vorticity, General Circulation of the Atmosphere. Broad Features of Indian Monsoons, Monsoon Depressions; Tropical Convergence Zones; Tropical Cyclones.

Section B: Ocean Sciences

  • Vertical Profiles of Temperature and Salinity; Stability and Double Diffusion; Equation of State, Equations for Conservation of Mass, Momentum, Heat and Salt; Inertial Currents; Geostrophic Motion; Air-Sea Surface Fluxes; Wind-driven Circulation, Ekman and Sverdrup Transports; Storm Surges, Tides, Tsunamis and Wind Waves; Eddies and Gyres; Eastern and Western Boundary Currents, Equatorial Currents, Indian Ocean Current Systems; Thermohaline Circulation.
  • Chemical Properties of Seawater, Major and Minor Elements, Ocean Acidification, Biochemical Cycling of Nutrients, Trace Metals and Organic Matter. Biological Pump; Primary and Secondary Biological Productivity; Air-sea Exchange of Biogenic Dissolved Gases; Marine Ecology.

Direct link to download GATE Atmospheric & Ocean Science (XE-H) syllabus PDF 

GATE 2021 XE Exam Pattern 

The exam pattern and the marking scheme for Engineering science paper is given below:

Section  Distribution of Marks
General Aptitude 5 questions of 1-mark each
5 questions of 2-marks each
Section A – Engineering Mathematics (compulsory) 7 questions of 1-mark each
4 questions of 2-marks each
Sections B to H (Any two) 9 questions of 1-mark each 
13 questions of 2-marks each
  • Mode of Examination is online
  • The duration of the same is 3 hours.
  • The total number of questions is 65 and the total marks are 100 marks.
  • There will be negative marking for only the MCQs in the exam. 

Check Detailed GATE 2021 Exam Pattern 

How to Prepare for GATE 2021 Engineering Sciences Paper?

1. Choose your Sections or Papers Smartly

  • In Engineering Sciences, section will be compulsory for all the candidates. 
  • Candidates will get an option to select 2 options or papers from section B to H. 
  • Choose these two subjects smartly. The selection should be based on your current qualification and interest.

2. Being thorough with the syllabus and important topics

  • After the selection of subject go through the entire syllabus. 
  • You have to prepare for General aptitude, engineering mathematics, and 2 selected subjects. 
  • Do not get confused and prepare only for the selected subject syllabus. 

3. Practice, practice and more practice

  • All the candidates are advised to practice more and more so that you can easily solve the questions during the time of real examination. 
  • The practice will also help you in gaining accuracy and speed. 
  • With practice, you can easily identify the difficult and easy questions or direct questions and solve them accordingly. 

4. Choosing the right reference books

  • Select the right books for preparation. 
  • You can also go through the books of your graduation level. 
  • Select the books which are easy to understand and have all the basic details with examples. 

5. Have a proper study plan

  • Prepare a good study plan. Your study plan could be monthly or weekly.
  • Follow your time table or study plan to complete the whole syllabus on time. 
  • Revising regularly

6. Solve mock tests and other practice papers

  • The mock test will help you to identify your strong and weak areas. 
  • You can prepare from online sites and mobile apps
  • Remember to prepare a list of important formulae.

Check GATE 2021 Mock Test

Frequently Asked Question 

Ques: How many sections or subjects do I need to select in GATE Engineering Sciences paper?

Ans: GATE Engineering Sciences (XE) syllabus majorly divided into 3 sections. The first section is General Aptitude and the second section is Engineering Mathematics which is named as section A is compulsory for candidates. The third part comprises sections B to H and candidates have to choose any two sections to appear for the exam.

Ques: Do I have to prepare for engineering mathematics in GATE Engineering Sciences paper?

Ans: Yes. Engineering mathematics is a compulsory section in this paper. Along with the general aptitude and 2 selected sections you have to prepare for engineering mathematics also. The weightage of this section is 15%. 

Ques: Since there are multiples sections in this paper then what will be the marking scheme?

Ans: The marking scheme of this paper is mentioned in the table below:

Section  Distribution of Marks
General Aptitude 5 questions of 1-mark each
5 questions of 2-marks each
Section A – Engineering Mathematics (compulsory) 7 questions of 1-mark each
4 questions of 2-marks each
Sections B to H (Any two) 9 questions of 1-mark each 
13 questions of 2-marks each

Ques: What are the major topics in XE-B and XE-E papers?

Ans: The major topics in XE-E section are: 

  • Basic Concepts
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Properties of Pure Substances
  • Thermodynamic Relations
  • Thermodynamic cycles
  • Ideal Gas Mixtures

The major topics in XE-B section are:

  • Flow and Fluid Properties
  • Kinematics
  • Integral analysis
  • Differential Analysis
  • Inviscid flows
  • Dimensional analysis
  • Internal flows
  • Prandtl boundary layer equations

Ques: What is the difficulty level of GATE Engineering Sciences paper?

Ans: Depending on the experience of the previous years' test-takers, the difficulty level of the exam is moderate. Candidates are advised to focus on all the formulas so that they can easily solve the direct questions. Clear your concepts so that you can solve NATS and other questions. 

*The article might have information for the previous academic years, which will be updated soon subject to the notification issued by the University/College.

GATE 2021 : 43 answered questions


Ques. What do you prefer, the GATE or the IES?

● Top Answer By Keshav Jindal on 25 Feb 21

Ans. I would prefer GATE or IES because in GATE the ratio is 10:1 whereas in IES the ratio is 300:1. This makes IES a very tough competitive exam but in GATE it is easier to get good marks and rank higher as the paper is easy and less competitive compared to IES.  The IES exam is tougher than GATE because here a candidate has to excel both in academics and personality. In GATE the questions are concept based and it is easier to solve if all the concepts are clear. Also in the GATE exam, there are 65 questions and the time limit is 3 hours but in the IES exam there are 120 questions and the time limit is 2 hours. So you get less time to solve all the questions.  After qualifying for your GATE exam with good marks, you can apply to any of the big companies with higher packages and it also opens your gate to apply for PSU.   After qualifying for your IES exam, you will get a job as an assistant executive engineer and after 3-4 years of experience, you will get promoted to executive engineer post. Then after many years of experience of like 20+ years, you will get Chief Engineer posts.Read more
1 Answer

Ques. What is the pattern for the written test for M.Tech at IIT Gandhinagar?

● Top Answer By Kumar Shiwam on 24 Feb 21

Ans. The admission for M. Tech at IIT Gandhinagar is done on the basis of academic records, written test, personal interview, and valid GATE scores. Those students who have a good academic record along with good GATE scores are not supposed to appear in the written test and personal interview.  The pattern of the written test is as follows: 10 questions of General aptitude questions consisting of logical analytical and reasoning ability and engineering mathematics are asked. 15-20 questions are asked related to basic courses in various disciplines up to the third year of an undergraduate program. The total duration of the written test is 1 hour for 80 marks. A total of 40 marks for general aptitude and 40 for basic knowledge. There is a negative marking and very basic questions are asked in the test. For branch subjects, all questions are asked related to SOM, fluid mechanics, etc.  The reservation category will get relaxation in the cut-off marks as per the norms. You will also be entitled to and fro sleeper class train tickets for the shortest route from your hometown to the institute. If you pass the test then you will attend the interview on the same day.Read more
1 Answer

Ques. What are the best coaching centres for GATE and IES in Civil Engineering?

● Top Answer By Sabeer Chalana on 23 Feb 21

Ans. There are many coaching centers throughout the country for IES and GATE coaching. However, these 2 institutes enjoy a huge reputation and recognition at the national level due to their experienced faculty and their study material quality. Made Easy: It is one of the best in the field when it comes to GATE and IES coaching. They have the best faculty teaching the subjects for the students.  Their specialty lies in their high quality and concise presentation. One of my friends enrolled in the Delhi center weekend coaching program, which he claimed to be good. Their online test series is one of the best you can opt for. They are prepared keeping the present pattern in mind. The number of students enrolled is hefty and gives you a clear picture of the competition. Some criticize that their teaching lacks depth compared to other institutes. Their courses and tests require analytical knowledge and are more than enough to crack GATE/IES exams. IES Masters: This institute is one of the best in this field and has earned respect for its excellence and quality coaching within a short span of its inception. All the major subjects for all batches are handled by Mr. Kanchan Thakur who is the director of the institute. He has a brilliant command over all the subjects in Civil engineering. The study material of this institute is best and is even recommended for those who choose civil engineering as an optional subject in UPSC exams. One small setback is that other faculties than the director are not on par when compared with the faculties of Made Easy. For the GATE Online test series, you can opt for Made easy test series, and for the IES test series you can opt for IES Masters. If you plan to join made easy to enroll in Super Talent Batch which has all top faculties teaching in this batch. For Classroom coaching for civil engineering in GATE/IES, Super talent batch can be preferred if not then IES Masters. For Postal study course, one can opt for IES masters.Read more
1 Answer

Ques. Which will be a better career for ECE engineers, IBPS SO or PSU via the GATE?

● Top Answer By Vaishnavi Agrawal on 19 Feb 21

Ans. Some of my friends work in both the departments and based on their experience, I can answer this. If you look at the position of an IBPS SO, it's that of a specialist officer. You'd technically be a network administrator of all of the intra networks of the bank. You'd be a database administrator/database manager who would have the entire intra network of that particular bank under your supervision.  Now if you look at the PSU job, you'd be someone who would be responsible for sustaining the technicalities concerning PSU. Your enquiry on which one is better entirely is up to you and where your interest lies. While some might opt for GATE which concerns their core subjects entirely, others simply might find their area of interest in networking. So, decide for yourself and choose what suits you and not the rest.Read more
1 Answer

Ques. What is the difference between IES and GATE?

● Top Answer By Himani Arora on 17 Feb 21

Ans. GATE and IES, are very well known among graduate engineers. The IES exam is carried out annually by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and the GATE exam is administered by Bangalore's Indian Institute of Science (IISc) or any of the seven IITs. Syllabus and paper pattern: The complete engineering syllabus is covered by the IES exam, while GATE covers a portion of this syllabus and some other topics useful for higher studies.  While GATE tests problem-solving ability, IES tests conceptual capability.  The IES exam paper contains questions of the objective and subjective type and a total of 4 papers, while the GATE exam paper only contains questions of the objective type and only 1 paper.  Only in the subjective paper, a calculator is allowed. Difficulty Level & Duration: It will be much more difficult to solve the questions you will face in GATE than in IES.  In a single problem, GATE questions require you to apply many concepts. For that, you should have good problem-solving skills.  While most of the questions asked in IES are direct formula or a single concept based. In GATE, in 3 hours, you have to solve 65 questions that are approximately 2.5 minutes per question.  On the other hand, you have 120 questions in 2 hours to solve in IES. So, 1 minute per question which means you get nearly 2.5 times more “time” per question in GATE. But the difficulty level compensates for it. Category of PSUs and Job Scope: UPSC conducts IES examination to recruit candidates under the Govt for different engineering departments (mechanical, electrical, civil, and E&T).  Around India, The departments you get through IES are Indian Railway Service of Engineers, Indian Railway Stores Service, Indian Ordnance Factories Service AWM/JTS., Central Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Service, Geological Survey of India Engineering Service Gr ‘A’, Central Engineering Service (Roads), Gr ‘A’, Central Water Engineering Service Gr ‘A’, Indian Defence Service of Engineers, Central Power Engineering Service Gr ‘B’ and so on. The GATE exam is organized for higher studies (, PH. Ed. etc) and for placements in PSUs and Govt. Organizations. From the above-mentioned factual information, the difference between the two should be clear. Rest all depends on your choice what you opt for.Read more
1 Answer


tanishka shah
How is the syllabus different from electronics and communication?
rakhisree chatterjee

Hi, The syllabus for GATE ECE is Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.

rakhisree chatterjee

Hi, The syllabus for GATE ECE is Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.