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NEET Biology Syllabus 2021, Weightage of Important topics, Sample Questions and Preparation Tips 

Registration: 13 May `21
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Atul Yadav logo

Atul Yadav

Exam prep master | Updated On - Apr 29, 2021

NEET Biology syllabus is based on the topics that you have studied in Class XI and XII NCERT Books. Further, the syllabus of biology is divided into two parts i.e. Zoology and Botany. Biology individually has 50% weightage in NEET and this makes it vital to score a better rank in the exam. Both Zoology and Botany have equal weightage and for every correct answer, candidates can score 4 marks whereas for a wrong answer 1 mark will be deducted. Check NEET Exam Pattern

The difficulty level of NEET biology paper was rated moderate by the test takes of previous years. The maximum number of questions were asked from topics like Cell Structure & Function, Plant Physiology, etc. Check NEET Paper Analysis

NEET Latest Updates:

  • April 29: NEET 2021 is scheduled to be held on August 1 in 11 languages. Check Here
  • April 25: Candidates can also download NEET question papers along with answer keys for better preparation. Download Now

Biology has a lot of definitions and scientific terms that need to be prepared and regular revision is required for better performance in the exam. Hence candidates must be well aware of the complete biology syllabus and prepare thoroughly covering all the topics.

NEET Biology Syllabus Highlights

Total weightage 50% of NEET
Subcategory Botany and Zoology
Number of questions asked 90 
Marks allotted for each question 4 marks for correct answer
Negative marking 1 marks will be reduced for wrong answer
Total marks for Biology  360 out of 720 marks

Biology NEET Syllabus from Class 11th

NEET Biology class 11th syllabus

NEET Biology syllabus of Class 11th weightage
Unit I - Diversity in Living World 9%
Unit II- Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants 9%
Unit III- Cell Structure and Function 15%
Unit IV- Plant Physiology 17%
Unit V- Human physiology 28%

NEET biology class 11th Syllabus in detail

Unit  Syllabus
Unit 1 – Diversity in Living World

• What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy — Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

• Salient features and classification of animals-non chordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level ( salient features and examples).

UNIT 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed

 • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

Unit 3 – Cell Structure and Function

• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Unit 4 – Plant Physiology

• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant — water relations — imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water— Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases

• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth Regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

Unit 5 – Human Physiology

• Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders — PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of the circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagella, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout

• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease)

Download NEET Practice Papers

Biology NEET Syllabus from Class 12th

NEET Biology Class 12th syllabus

NEET Biology Syllabus Class 12th Weightage
Unit I – Reproduction 14%
Unit II – Genetics and Evolution 7%
Unit III – Biology and Human Welfare 18%
Unit IV – Biotechnology and its Applications 12%
Unit V – Ecology and Environment 19%

NEET Biology Class 12th Syllabus in detail

Units  Syllabus
UNIT I: Reproduction

• Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction — Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies — IVF, ZIFT, GIFT 

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution

• Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare

• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment

• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

Check NEET Paper Analysis

Section Wise Weightage of Topics

NEET Biology syllabus- Weightage of Important topics 

NEET will consist of a total 90 questions out of which half of the questions will be asked from Botany and other half for Zoology. Candidates can go through the table given below and get acquainted with the weightage of each topic.

Botany: Topics like plant physiology, cell structure have higher weightage than others given below is a complete list of topics considered important for the exam along with weightage.

NEET Botany Topics Number of Questions Marks allocated Weightage (%age)

Class 11th - Botany Topics

Diversity in Living World 4 16 8.51%
Living World 1 4
Plant Kingdom 1 4
Biological classification 2 8
Structural Organisation in Animals & Plants 4 16 8.51%
Anatomy of Flowering Plant 3 12
Morphology in flowering plants 1 4
Cell Structure & Function 7 28 14.89%
Cell Cycle and Division 2 8
Cell: The unit of life 5 20
Plant Physiology 8 32 17.02%
Mineral Nutrition 1 4
Plant Growth and Development 2 8
Respiration in Plants 2 8
Transport in Plants 3 12
NEET Botany Questions & Weightage from Class 11th 23 92 48.94%
Sexual Reproduction in flowering Plants 4 16 8.51%
Genetics & Evolution 10 40 21.28%
Principles of Inheritance and variation 7 28
Molecular basis of inheritance 3 12
Microbes in Human Welfare 1 4 2.13%
Ecology & Environment 9 36 19.15%
Biodiversity and Conservation 3 12
Ecosystem 1 4
Environmental Issues 4 16
Organisms and Population 1 4
NEET Botany Questions & Weightage from Class 12th 24 96 51.06%
NEET Botany Questions & Weightage from Class 11th and 12th 47 188 100.00%

Zoology: Topics like human physiology, Reproduction and biology & human welfare have more weightage in the exam, aspirants can go through the table given below to know important topics for Zoology in NEET

NEET Zoology Topics Number of Questions Marks Allocated Weightage (%age)

Class 11th - Zoology Chapters

Animal Kingdom 2 8 4.65%
Structural Organisation in Animal 2 8 4.65%
Biomolecules 4 16 9.30%
Breathing and exchange of gases 1 4 2.33%
Human Physiology 12 48 27.91%
Chemical Coordination 2 8
Digestion and Absorption 2 8
Excretory products and their elimination 2 8
Locomotion and Movement 2 8
Body Fluids and Circulation 2 8
Nervous System 2 8
NEET Zoology Questions & Weightage from Class 11th 21 84 48.84%

Class 12th - Zoology Chapters

Reproduction 6 24 13.95%
Human Reproduction 3 12
Reproductive Health 3 12
Evolution 3 12 6.98%
Biology & Human Welfare 8 32 18.60%
Human Health and Disease 4 16
Microbes in Human Welfare 3 12
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 1 1 4
Biotechnology 5 20 11.63%
Biotechnology and its application 2 8
Biotechnology and its processes and principles 3 12
NEET Zoology Questions & Weightage from Class 12th 22 88 51.16%
NEET Zoology Questions & Weightage from Class 11th& 12th 43 172 100.00%

Check Mobile Apps and Online Resources for Preparing NEET

Difficulty Level of NEET Biology Questions

As per the paper analysis from previous years the difficulty level of the paper is 

  • Almost 50% of the questions are easy to attempt

  • 36% of the questions are moderate

  • 14% of the questions are difficult to answer.

Section Number of easy Questions Number of Moderate Questions Number of difficult Questions
Botany 21 17 7
Zoology 20 19 6

NEET Biology Sample Questions

NEET biology questions are basically memory based with a lot of scientific terms involved and students must be well aware of it. In Depth questions will be asked from the related topics, below is the sample questions asked in NEET

Ques 1. The endoplasmic reticulum in rapidly dividing cells is

(a) absent

(b) not functional

(c) poorly developed

(d) highly developed

Answer: c

Ques 2. This is related to glycosylation of protein

(a) Lysosome

(b) Peroxisome

(c) Mitochondria

(d) ER

Answer: (d)

NEET Biology Syllabus Content Based Lectures by NTA

NTA has provided video lecture facilities to candidates for preparation of NEET, with the video lectures from Subject Experts. Candidates can access these videos by following these simple steps:

  • Visit the official website of NTA i.e.

  • Click on the “Students” tab/button. 

  • There you can see one option of “Content Based Lectures”. Click on that option.

  • You will be redirected to a new page where you can see subject wise options for video lectures.

  • Choose the subject of your choice to take the benefit of video lectures from experts.

Check NEET Video Lectures by NTA

NEET Biology Syllabus Mock Test

NEET mock test is provided by NTA and can be accessed by visiting the official website of NEET i.e. 

  • Mock tests are available in online mode.

  • Candidates can directly access the page without having to register in order to take these mock tests. 

  • Candidates can also download the mock tests. 

NEET mock test will help candidates to analyse their strong and weak areas. They can work upon the weaker topics after getting acquainted. The candidates can get an idea of the real time exam scenario. It will help them in managing their time while attempting the questions.

Best Books for NEET Biology Syllabus

Top reference books NEET Biology Syllabus

NEET biology syllabus is totally based on the curriculum of NCERT and going through the NCERT books of class 11th and 12th is very important, but as the competition and difficulty level of the exam is increasing candidates need to get an extra bit of push by preparing with the help of reference books.Given below are the recommended books for NEET biology 

Author Books
Trueman Biology Vol 1 and Vol 2 
Ansari Objective Botany 
Pradeep publications Pradeep Guide on Biology
GR Bathla publications GR Bathla publications for Biology
MTG Editorial Board Complete NEET Guide: Biology

Check: NEET Preparation Books

Preparation Tips for NEET Biology

The questions in Biology are basically based on scientific terms and memory based questions. According to the questions asked in previous years, most of the questions are easy to moderate. This means the candidates can score well with consistent preparation and following a routine. Along with that, the candidate must also follow some tips to prepare strategically to cover all the topics.Some proven tips are mentioned below that can fetch better results for the candidates.

Tip 1: Divide syllabus according to the difficulty:

Candidates can divide the sections or topics for preparation based on the difficulty level or number of questions asked from that particular section. 

  • High Priority Topics - The topics that have higher weightage in the exam should be kept in higher priority like cell structure, reproduction, human physiology,biology and human welfare. Lots of questions are asked and candidates should dedicate more time on them 

  • Medium priority Topics -The topics from which 15-20 questions are asked must be kept in medium priority and candidates should work after finishing the high priority topics. This includes topics from Diversity in living world, biomolecules,structural organisation in plants and animals

  • Low priority Topics- Around 2 to 10 questions can be asked from these topics: these topics include- biotechnology, strategy for enhancement in food production etc.

Tip 2: Preparing Notes for Revision:

  • Sticky notes and self prepared notes are proven ways to prepare well.

  • Candidates should prepare handwritten notes for revision. 

  • Revision will help you in memorizing the topics for a longer period of time. 

  • Aspirants must note down all the important formulas, facts etc and revise them daily. 

Tip 3: Practice Papers and Mock Tests:

  • With the help of practice papers or mock tests candidates can work upon the pace and precision of answering the questions. 

  • Candidates must focus on accuracy while practising questions they will gain speed. 

  • Mock Tests help dramatically in improving overall preparation and getting a desired result.

Practice NEET Mock Test

Tip 4: Proper Time Management:

  • The candidates must prepare and follow a proper time table religiously.

  • The time table should include short breaks so that candidates can relax body and mind. 

  • Prepare a daily, weekly and monthly target and accomplish it on time. This method gives a feeling of reward and makes preparation interesting.

Expected Topics to be Removed from NEET Biology

Class XI Class XII
Diversity of Living Organism Reproduction in Organism
Structural Organisation in Animal and Plants Genetics and Evolution
Plant Physiology Biology and Human Welfare

Frequently Asked Questions

NEET Biology FAQs

Question: What is the weightage of biology in NEET 2021?

Ans. Biology has 50% weightage in NEET that means 90 out 180 questions are asked from biology and it is divided into botany and Zoology which have 45 questions each.

Question: Has the syllabus for biology changed for NEET 2021?

Ans. The syllabus of biology has NOT changed and it will remain the same for NEET 2021.

Question: Which is the most important topic in biology?

Ans. NTA designs the questions in such a way that it covers all the topics uniformly so candidates must prepare all the topics.

Question: Does Zoology has more weightage than botany 

Ans. Both Zoology and Botany have equal weightage in the exam. There can be minute diversion in the number of questions asked. But that differs from year to year.

Question: Is class 12th biology syllabus more important than 11th biology syllabus?

Ans. The weightage of syllabus is same for both class 11th and 12th. So candidates must give importance to topics from both class 11th and 12th syllabus.

Question: Is preparing from NCERT books enough to clear NEET ?

Ans. Preparation from NCERT is important because NTA follows the syllabus prescribed by NCERT. But to score better marks candidates need to refer from advanced syllabus from different reference books.

Question: What are the best books to prepare for NEET biology syllabus?

Ans. There are lot of reference books available to prepare for NEET biology, some famous books are

  • Biology Vol 1 and Vol 2 by Trueman

  • Pradeep Guide on Biology

  • Complete NEET Guide: Biology

*The article might have information for the previous academic years, which will be updated soon subject to the notification issued by the University/College.


mohd ramzan wani
with greetings of the day your work to help neet asspirants is appriciable worth praising
sinbad chongtham

Thank you very much for your kind words! Collegedunia works to assist aspirants to be successful and have a bright future

sourajit mukherjee
What are the important topics in Botany and Zoology?
diya suresh

Botany and Zoology are part of Biology section and the NEET exam syllabus is based on 11th and 12th NCERT syllabus.

Some of the 11th class important topics are Cell Structure and Function, Plant Physiology, Human Physiology etc., while from 12th class, important topics are Biology and Human Welfare, Ecology and Environment, Reproduction among others. To know more details visit NEET Biology Syllabus 2021.

How many questions can usually be asked on Mendel's genetics?
diya suresh

Hi Nishu, Genetics and Evolution comes under Biology section and it carries 7% weightage in total 50% of Biology weightage. In Biology section there will be 45 questions each from zoology and botany. Find related details at NEET 2021 exam pattern.

ankita sasmal
Do I need to study topics apart from those given in NCERT?
gurpreet singh

Hi Ankita

Click Here to find the books you need to study

What is the percentage of tough, intermediate and easy questions in the exam?
gurpreet singh

Hi Riyaz

There is a change in question paper every year so you can check out the subject weightage of each questions here.

ramesh kumar gupta
Will there be reduction in exam syllabus?
manika gupta

Hi, On July 7, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) announced a reduction in the syllabus for Class 11 and Class 12, approximately 30 per cent. Students preparing for NEET 2021 can omit these topics for now, until a revised NEET 2021 syllabus is announced by the National Testing Agency (NTA).

fauzia shahid
How can I prepare for the biology exam of NEET?
manika gupta

Hi, To prepare for the NEET Biology section, you must solve the question papers of the past 10 years (minimum). In addition to solving the previous years' question papers of NEET, you must also try to solve the question papers of AIIMS and JIPMER exams (up to 2019).