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    NEET Study Notes for Biological Classification: Quick Revision Notes and Solved Questions

    Nikkil Visha Nikkil Visha
    Exams Prep Master

    Biological classification is one of the most important and scoring topics of the Biology that helps you to understand living organisms on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities. The most important topic is the classification of Kingdoms which is divided into 5 parts. Understanding of this topic will help you to score around 8 to 10 marks in NEET

    • Minimum of 2- 3 questions can be asked in NEET from Biological Classification.
    • This topic is quite fascinating and involves concepts that must be learned properly in order to answer direct questions. 

    As per the test-takers, this is the easiest part of Biology in NEET and there is no doubt in the fact that the topic is scoring too. Read the article to know more about 5 kingdoms of classification, important definitions, and much more. 

    Must Read: 


    What is Biological Classification?

    Biological Classification is the process of grouping the living organisms on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities. This complete process is also known as taxonomy. 

    • The living organisms are classified into five kingdoms: Kingdom Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
    • Biological Classification is of three types: Artificial, Natural, and Phylogenetic. The biological classification has made it possible to identify the organisms on the basis of their characteristics.

    Important topics from Biological Classification

    • Kingdom Monera
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Animalia

    Systems of classification

    • Biological Classification is defined as identifying the differences among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect most of the significant features and relationships.
    • Aristotle was the first one to propose biological classification who divided plants into herbs, shrubs, and trees. Also, Animals were classified into RBCs and WBCs.

    Quick Notes on Two Kingdom Classification

    Quick Notes on Two Kingdom Classification

    ARTIFICIAL SYSTEMNATURAL SYSTEM

    This is the system which utilizes one or two morphological traits.

    This is the system employs several morphological characters for grouping of organisms.

    This type of kingdom may use habit and habitat as criteria for grouping.

    This type of kingdom uses habit and habitat as criteria for classification.

    In this, Homology is never studied.

    It studies homology in all characters including morphology, anatomy, cytotaxonomy, molecular systematics etc.

    The system gives no information about natural relationships or phylogeny.

    The system gives information about natural relationships or phylogeny.

    It often results in placing of unrelated organisms in a group.

    There is little chance of placing of unrelated organisms in a group.

    Related organisms often get separated into different groups.

    Related organisms are placed the same groups.

    Sample Question

    Question: Which is the smallest taxon of classification?

    1. Kingdom
    2. Family
    3. Variety
    4. Species

    Answer: (3)

    Check NEET Biology Topic Wise Preparation Tips


    Five Kingdom Classification

    The five-kingdom classification was given by R.H. Whittaer which was based on 3 characters, i.e., Complexity of cell, the complexity of organisms, and Nutrition. The five kingdoms as classified by Whittaker are Kingdom Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.


    Kingdom Monera

    Kingdom Monera

    The kingdom includes all types of prokaryotes: mycoplasma, bacteria, actinomycetes and cyanobacteria. Some of the characteristics of Kingdom Monera are:

    • Unicellular Organisms.
    • Genetic material is naked circular DNA which is not enclosed by nuclear envelop.
    • The predominant mode of nutrition is absorpitive. But some groups are photosynthetic and chemosynthetic.
    • Most organisms bear a rigid cell wall (peptidoglycan).
    • Reproduction is asexual by binary fission or budding.
    • Smallest and most abundant organism on Earth.
    • Example: Blue green algae, Bacteria, etc.

    Bacteria:

    • Bacteria are found in various shapes like:

    a) Coccus (spherical)

    b) Bacillus (rod-shaped)

    c) Vibrio (comma shaped)

    d) Spirillum (spiral shaped)

    • Bacteria found everywhere and that can be Photosynthetic autotrophs, Heterotrophs or Chemosynthetic autotrophs. 

    Mycoplasma:

    • Completely lack a cell wall.
    • Smallest living cells known.
    • Can survive even without oxygen.
    • Pathogenic in animals and plants.

    Eubacteria:

    • These are also known as true bacteria.
    • They have a rigid cell wall.
    • They possess flagellum, if motile.
    • They are also known as blue-green algae or Cyanobacteria.
    • These are unicellular, colonial or filamentous algae.

    Kingdom Protista

    Kingdom Protista

    The kingdom Protista includes Chrysophytes, Eugloids, Slime Moulds and Protozoans. Some of the characteristics of Kingdom Protista are:

    • All are unicellular and eukaryotic.
    • They are primarily aquatic and can live in moist places.
    • They form a link with the other dealing with plants, animals and fungi.
    • The cell body contains a well defined nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
    • Some have cilia or flagella.
    • They reproduce asexually and sexually by a process of cell fusion and zygote formation.

    Chrysophytes:

    • It includes golden algae and diatoms.
    • It carries photosynthesis
    • They are found in freshwater as well as in marine environments.
    • Cell wall contains silica hence they are indestructible.
    • They are used in polishing, filtration of oils and syrups.

    Dinoflagellates:

    • The cell wall has stiff cellulose plates.
    • They are marine and photosynthetic.
    • They appear yellow, green, brown, blue or red depending on the pigments.
    • They have two flagella − one longitudinal and other transversely in a furrow between wall plates.

    Sample Question

    Question: The protists have which of the following?

    1. Free nucleic acid aggregates
    2. Nucleoprotein in contact with rest of the cell substance
    3. Membrane bound nucleoproteins within the cytoplasm
    4. Nucleoproteins condensed together in loose mass

    Answer: (3)


    Kingdom Fungi

    Kingdom Fungi

    Some of the characteristics of Kingdom Fungi are:

    • All are unicellular and eukaryotic.
    • They are non- motile and non- vascular.
    • They reproduce by the means of spores called conidia or zoospores.
    • They produce both sexually and asexually through their spores depending on the species and conditions.
    • The vegetative body of the fungi can be unicellular or composed of microscopic threads called hyphae. 
    • The network of hyphae is known as mycelium.
    • The structure of cell wall is similar to plants but it is said that chemically the fungi cell wall is composed of chitin.
    • Fungi are heterotrophic organisms.
    • They digest food first and then they ingest food and in order to accomplish this fungi produce exoenzymes.
    • The nucleus of the fungi is very small.
    • Nutrition in fungi is saprophytic, or parasitic or symbiotic.
    • Reproduction in fungi can be by both sexual and asexual means. 
    • Sexual state is called teleomorph, asexual state is called anamorph.
    • They are primarily aquatic and can live in moist places.

    Sample Question

    Question: Fungi usually store food in which form?

    1. Starch
    2. Protein
    3. Lipid
    4. Glycogen and oil

    Answer: (1)


    Kingdom Plantae

    Kingdom Plantae

    Some of the characteristics of Kingdom Plantae are:

    • Most of the plants are eukaryotic.
    • Plants contain chlorophyll and their cells are surrounded by cell wall.
    • Plants obtain their energy from sun through the process of photosynthesis.
    • Plants reproduce both sexually and asexually. Alternation of generation is found in plants.
    • The cell walls of plants are comprised of cellulose.
    • They have the ability to grow by cell division. 
    • Growth occurs because of the presence of definite growing points or cells. In higher forms, growing areas are called meristems.
    https://files.askiitians.com/cdn1/images/2014612-11341653-80-plant-kingdom.png

    Sample Question

    Who wrote the book “Genera Plantarum”?

    1. Bessey
    2. Benthem and Hooker
    3. Linnaeus
    4. Hutchinson

    Answer: (2)

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    Kingdom Animalia

    Kingdom Animalia

    Some of the characteristics of Kingdom Animalia are:

    • The animals are eukaryotic, multicellular and heterotrophic organisms.
    • The animals depend on other organisms for their food.
    • The animals have multiple cells with mitochondria and have tissue and organ system.
    • The animal cell contains organelles like the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles, and cytoskeleton.
    • Most animals have ability to move and show rapid movement as compared to other ones.
    • Organ systems are skeletal system, muscular system, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive system, immune system and the endocrine system.
    https://files.askiitians.com/cdn1/images/2014612-11148111-1333-animal-classification-on-levels.png

    Quick Notes on Five Kingdom Classification

    Quick Notes on Five Kingdom Classification by Whittaker

    Five Kingdom Classification by Whittaker
    AttributesMoneraProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia
    Cell typeProkaryoticEukaryoticEukaryoticEukaryoticEukaryotic
    Cell wallPolysaccharide + amino acidMay be presentChitinCelluloseAbsent
    Organ complexityunicellularUnicellularMulticellularMulticellularMulticellular
    Mode of NutritionChemosynthetic Autotrophic/ heterotrophicAutotrophic/ heterotrophicHeterotrophic AbsorptionAutotrophicHeterotrophic Holozoic

    Previous Years Solved Sample Questions

    Previous Years Solved Sample Questions

    Q1. What is the main basis of classification in the five kingdom system?

    1. Structure of nucleus
    2. Structure of cell wall
    3. Asexual Reproduction
    4. Mode of Nutrition

    Answer: (2)

    Q2. In which kingdom are Archaea and Nitrogen-fixing organisms classified?

    1. Animalia
    2. Plantae
    3. Monera
    4. Fungi

    Ans: (3)

    Q3. Viriods differ from viruses in having:

    1. DNA molecules with protein coat
    2. DNA molecules without protein coat
    3. RNA molecules with protein coat
    4. RNA molecules without protein coat

    Answer: (1)

    Q4. Which one of the following is not true for fungi?

    1. They are eukaryotic
    2. All fungi possess a purely cellulosic cell wall
    3. They are heterotrophic
    4. They are both unicellular and multicellular

    Answer: (4)

    Q5. Linnaeus evolved a system of nomenclature called

    1. Vernacular
    2. Monomial
    3. Polynomial
    4. Binomial

    Answer: (4)

    Q6. One of the major components of cell wall of fungi are:

    1. Peptidoglycan
    2. Cellulose
    3. Hemicellulose
    4. Chitin

    Answer: (2)

    Download NEET Practice Papers


    Study Plan for NEET Biology

    NEET 2020 could be a tough nut to crack, but with consistent efforts and proper study schedule, it can be cleared with flying colors easily. Candidates have to make a proper study plan for the last 45 days to clear the paper with good marks and ranking.

    Most of the students are done with their syllabus during the last days and plan to begin their revisions only. Revisions are necessary and also need to be planned so that you can cover all the topics in time and nothing is left out. Below is given a study plan for the last 45 days of NEET preparation. Students can advised to consider this and follow it religiously in order to get good marks.

    WEEK 1

    One must completely analyze the syllabus and pick one to two topics daily and give 1 hour to each topic.

    Prepare everything from the basics and understand each and every concept elaborately.

    Revise the topics which you have studied during preparation only.

    WEEK 2After revising everything once, go through the concepts in detail and learn all the important points topic wise.
    WEEK 3

    Start solving the questions topic wise within the limited time to increase the speed.

    Repeat the same activity once or twice a day.

    WEEK 4

    Now, This is the time to pick up the past years’ questions papers. Students are advised to solve the previous years’ question papers topic wise.

    Pick one topic and identify the questions based on it. Try to solve atleast 10 to 15 question papers before appearing for the final examination within 1 to 2 hours in order to improve your speed and accuracy.

    WEEK 5Purchase an online test series and start appearing for one mock test each day.
    WEEK 6Now, In the 6th week of the NEET examination, Go for the last and final revision and revise everything from the self prepared micro notes.
    NEET EXAM WEEKIn the final week, Revise everything once again, Take proper sleep and a healthy diet.

    Tips to study Biological Classification

    • Go through the detailed syllabus and divide each topic according to the time left to prepare for the examination.
    • Students must gather complete knowledge of the kingdoms classification before reading the chapter.
    • You must learn carefully the examples and the subdivision of each of the kingdom.
    • Also, Be regular and consistent with the revision part. Revise everything regularly. Keep revising all the important points and learn all the examples by heart.
    • Class Notes are the perfect example of an initiating step that helps you begin from scratch and build your concepts strong slowly. Pen down all the important information you receive in the class.
    • Candidates can purchase the online test series by some of the best and top coaching institutes in online mode only.
    • Online tutorials are good source of preparation as one can find unlimited video lectures on each subject. The content offered through these channels is reliable, given by field experts. Also, students can rely on these video lectures in case they’ve missed a topic or had doubts even after attending the lecture.
    • Candidates are advised to attempt at least 10- 15 previous year sample papers before appearing for the actual examination to understand the paper pattern, marking scheme and types of questions asked in the examination. This will give you an overview of the paper and the questions asked in the examination.

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