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    NEET Study Notes for Human Physiology, Easy Definitions, Solved Sample Questions and Preparation Tips

    Nikkil Visha Nikkil Visha
    Exams Prep Master

    Physiology is the science of life. It is that branch which focuses on comprehending the mechanisms of all living organisms. Research in Physiology provides knowledge as to how the body functions pertaining to health, how it responds and takes on the challenges of everyday life. 

    • Physiology in NEET 2020 has been divided into two prominent sections those being: Plant physiology and Human physiology. 
    • The weightage of section is around 12% in the overall examination that means if you prepare well for the section then you can score 20 to 24 marks in NEET. 

    The chapter will help you to understand what goes wrong when we are diseased, assisting in the development of new treatments and presenting guidelines for preserving the human and animal health. The functioning of the entire body that will help you to distinguish physiology from other branches of life sciences. Read the article to get simple definitions, sample questions, and preparation tips. 

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    What is Digestion and Absorption?

    Digestion and Absorption- The human digestive system is regarded as an intricate system of organs and glands that process the food. The human digestive system consists of the following parts-

    • Mouth
    • Digestive glands
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Big Intestine

    Sample question

    Question: The small intestine mainly has 3 parts, the 1st part is called

    • Duodenum
    • Oesophagus
    • Larynx
    • None of the above

    Answer- 2


    Breathing and exchange of gases

    Understanding Breathing and exchange of gases

    Breathing and exchange of gases- There is plenty of difference between breathing and Respiration. Breathing is merely the process of taking and giving out hair whereas on the other hand respiration refers to the process of the breakdown of the food/glucose for the release of energy during the presence of oxygen.

    It is followed by what are respiratory organs, the role of diffusion in the respiratory process, the detailed explanation on the human respiratory system.

    Sample question

    Question: The human skin cannot operate as a respiratory organ because of the following-

    1. It is not permeable to Oxygen or the Co2
    2. It is thick
    3. It is dry
    4. All of the above

    Answer- 4

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    Body Fluids and circulation

    Body Fluids and circulation

    Body Fluids and circulation- The circulatory system is focused on the circulation of bodily fluids to distribute various substances to different body parts. The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system.

    This is followed by functions of the circulatory system, difference between open and close circulatory system, human heart, circulation of the human heart etc.

    Sample question

    Question: ------- is the blood disorder wherein haemoglobin is defective.

    1. Heterochromia
    2. Alopecia
    3. Haemolysis
    4. Sickle cell anaemia

    Answer- 4


    Excretory products and their elimination

    What are Excretory products and their elimination?

    Excretory Products and their elimination- The excretory system is a biological system that facilitates the removal of unnecessary, waste, excess substances from the body fluids of an organism to preserve the internal chemical balance and curb any damage to the body. The excretory system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder and a urethra.

    Followed by the detailed discussion on the different parts of the excretory system and urine formation.

    Sample question 

    Question: Bowman Capsule is located in --------.

    1. Cortex
    2. Henle’s loop
    3. Bladder
    4. None of the above

    Answer- 1


    Locomotion and Movement

    Locomotion and Movement

    Locomotion and Movement- Locomotion can be defined as the ability to move from one location to another. Example- walking, running, crawling, jumping etc. on the other hand movement can be defined as a voluntary or involuntary action and not merely the transfer of a cell from one place to another.

    This is followed by locomotor movements, types of movements, types of muscles, skeletal muscles.

    Sample question

    Question: Which of the following is correct?

    1. Humans have 2 pairs of false floating ribs
    2. Humans have 1 pair of false floating ribs
    3. Humans have 3 pairs of false floating ribs
    4. Humans have 7 pairs of false floating ribs

    Answer- 1

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    Neural Control and Coordination

    What is Neural Control and Coordination?

    Neural Control and Coordination- The nervous system is regarded as a very vital component of the human body, supervising both voluntary and involuntary actions of the body.

    Followed by nerve impulse, detailed structure of the brain, what are neurons/nerve cells etc.

    Sample question

    Question: Wernicke’s area is associated with?

    1. Sight
    2. Motor coordination
    3. Written and spoken language
    4. None of the above

    Answer-3


    Chemical control and coordination

    Chemical control and coordination- The endocrine system comprises mainly of duct glands that give out chemical messengers called hormones that circulate via the blood stream to reach to different organs. Glands that secrete hormones initially into one’s blood stream are further termed as endocrine glands.

    Followed by classification of hormones, hypothalamus, pineal gland, thyroid gland etc.

    Sample question

    Question: Endocrine glands produce --------.

    1. Hormones
    2. Enzymes
    3. Vitamins
    4. Minerals

    Answer- 2


    Important topics in Human Physiology

    As far as experts are concerned, all the subtopics are important, however some are should be given more importance than the others like-

    • Photosynthesis in higher plants;
    • Respiration in plants
    • Neural Control and coordination
    • Breathing and exchange of gases
    • Body fluids and circulation

    Quick Notes on Plant Physiology

    Quick Notes on Plant Physiology

    Transport in Plant

    Transportation in plants is a complex process which involves the transport of all nutrients and water to all parts of the plant for survival. When it comes to plants a major concern is the transport of water and how it becomes a limiting factor pertaining to the growth of the plant. To bring the same under control, the tree makes use of several other processes like translocation, storing, absorption and utilization of water.

    It occurs in 3 main levels-

    • The intake followed by the release of water and solvent by the individual cells.
    • Short term/distance transport of substances from cell to cell.
    • Long term/distance transport of substances from cell to cell.

    Sample question

    Question: Which of the following is not a feature of the process of facilitated transportation in plants –

    1. The need for special membrane proteins
    2. Transportation of saturates
    3. It is a downhill transport

    Answer: 2; being non selective in nature is not held to be a characteristic of the facilitated transportation in plants.

    Mineral Nutrients

    • Absorption, utilization and incorporation of inorganic minerals and compounds used by plants for synthesizing growth, structure, development is termed as mineral nutrition. Basically all living organisms have essential nutrient needs like carbohydrates, fats, proteins vitamins etc.
    • Nutrients can be defined as the chemically formed compounds that act as raw materials to provide for the concoction of structural and functional development of plants.

    Nutrients are characterized into two divisions-

    • Macronutrients- Such nutrients are found in significant quantities in the tissues of the plant. It includes oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous etc.
    • Micronutrients- Also known as the trace elements are present in meagre quantities. The same includes Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper etc.

    Sample question

    Question: Which of the elements below are not essential for the plant in the process of a normal, healthy growth?

    1. Calcium
    2. Magnesium
    3. Lead
    4. Iron

    Answer: 2; as it is toxic even in smaller concentrations

    Photosynthesis in higher plants

    Photosynthesis can be defined as the process via which plants absorb the energy from the sunlight, use that to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules which accelerate the procedure of growth. These converted molecules comprise of enzymes, sugars and chlorophyll. This chlorophyll further helps to absorb the light energy.

    Mentioned below is the light equation-

    https://files.askiitians.com/cdn1/images/20161114-19192230-6392-hp14.png

    Sample question

    Question: Which of the following is correct for photosynthesis?

    1. Biological Oxidation Process
    2. Photochemical Catabolic Process
    3. Photo-oxidative metabolism
    4. Biological photo metabolism

    Answer- 4

    Plant respiration

    Plant respiration is mostly a chemical reaction with the help of which plants respire, in other words, stay live. The equation for the same would be Glucose + Oxygen -------- Carbon Dioxide+ Water + Energy

    Respiration can be categorised as –

    • Respiration in roots
    • Respiration in stem
    • Respiration in leaves

    Types of respiration-

    • Aerobic Respiration
    • Unaerobic Respiration

    Reaction of the process of respiration is as follows-

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    Sample question

    Question: Fill in the blanks-

    -------- is a product of unaerobic respiration.

    1. Malic acid
    2. Pyruvate
    3. Ethylene
    4. Lactose

    Answer: 1

    Plant- Growth and Development

    Plant- Growth and Development- Growth is the most primary characteristic of a living organisms and is followed by the several metabolic processes powered by energy. These processes can be catabolic or anabolic. In case of a plant, first it develops into a seedling, then gradually becomes an adult plant over the years. Plants display indefinite growth.

    This is followed by characteristics of growth, experiment to study the different stages of growth or types of growth.

    Sample question

    Question: ------ tissues synthesize natural cytokinins.

    1. Old
    2. Rapidly dividing
    3. Storage
    4. None of the above

    Answer- 2.

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    Previous Year Solved Questions

    Previous Year Solved Sample Questions

    Question 1: Leaf fall occurs when content of ----------

    1. Abscisic acid increases
    2. Auxin increases
    3. Auxin decreases
    4. Gibberellin decreases

    Answer- b, auxin plays an important role in the detachment of leaves and flowers, so as long as young leaves and flowers produce auxin they remain connected to the stem.

    Question 2: The opening of the flower and the drooping of the bud are?

    1. Hyponasty
    2. Epinasty
    3. Curvature movement
    4. Spontaneous movement

    Answer- b; epinasty is a movement in which the plant part (leaves, flower petal) is bent downwards and sometimes outward.

    Question 3: The internal lining of trachea is made up of ---------

    1. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    2. Pseudostratified epithelium
    3. Simple squamous epithelium

    Answer- b

    Question 4: When the sympathetic nerve gets activates which hormone does it release?

    1. Adrenaline which stimulates the organ
    2. Adrenaline which inhibits the organ
    3. Acetylcholine which stimulates the organ
    4. Glutamic acid

    Answer- c

    Question 5: Which of the mentioned below is the largest cranial nerve?

    1. Oculomotor Nerve
    2. Olfactory Nerve
    3. Trigeminal Nerve
    4. Tyrosine Nerve

    Answer- c

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    How to prepare & approach for Questions?

    How to prepare and approach for Questions on Human Physiology?

    Read the question carefully

    • Multiple choice questions are confusing in nature as they have similar and deceiving options. Hence the aspirants are advised to read and understand the question carefully. 
    • One must read the question, again and again, to mentally gather all the data they have looked through while studying. Then apply that to mark the correct, however, this is not the case with all questions as for some questions the answers can be easily guessed even before proceeding towards the options. 
    • If one is still in a dilemma the are advised to take the true and false, test to gradually strike out the other incorrect options.

    Using the step-wise approach to solve conceptual questions

    • The aspirants are advised to take the stepwise approach to solve complex questions which are to go one by one and to move on if one cannot answer a specific question. 
    • Match the following can be an example of such types of questions.

    Memorize all-important definitions, facts, common and scientific names

    • Most of the questions asked in NEET are memory-based. It is advised that the candidates to memorize the definitions, facts, etc. 
    • However, 40% are application-based but these easy ones help in one increasing their scores.

    Focus on NCERT books

    • Candidates must primarily focus on reading through the NCERT books as many times the NEET questions are directly asked from these same books.  Check Best Books for NEET

    Utilize time properly

    • One must divide all 3 hours of the examination duration strategically. 
    • Keep some extra time for the subject they are weak in as well as some time for revision of the answers. 
    • Divide the time uniformly to make sure one is able to attempt all the questions.

    Prepare a proper Study Plan

    • Firstly, the candidates must be familiar with the syllabus, know what exactly is coming under the plant and human physiology i.e. chapter names, how many chapters etc. 
    • One must make a time table and divide the time uniformly allotting some duration for plant physiology and some for humans physiology. 
    • One must keep a notebook handy while listening to lectures, to jot down important points that might help during revision. 
    • Concentrating on the weaker sections will increase the candidate’s chances to crack the exam as well as build their confidence. Lastly, one should take scheduled breaks and not overburden themselves.

    Best of Luck to all the aspirants for the upcoming NEET 2020 examination!

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