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# How to Prepare Syllogism for SSC CGL 2017

Syllogism is one of the most important and interesting topic in Reasoning and solving syllogism is always fun if you understand the shortcuts. Understanding the basic concepts on solving a particular question is very important. Of all the sections, reasoning area which candidate feel tough to crack. Therefore, we are here explaining how to solve syllogism questions in SSC CGL 2017.

• Syllogism is mode of thinking in which one reasons from two statements or propositions, called premises to a third statement or a proposition called the conclusion.
• A premise is a statement that serves as the basis of the argument.
• Conclusion asserts no more than what is already contained, implicitly, in the premises. If it does, syllogism is invalid.

#### Premises in Syllogism

A premise is a statement which comprises two terms; a subject and a predicate, connected by a relation.

• Subject is that about which something is said and
• Predicate states something about the subject.

If another premise contains one of these terms (known as the common term), we can deduce a relation between the non-common terms.

### Syllogism Tips & Tricks for SSC CGL 2017

It’s kind of verbal reasoning, where you will be given two or more statements followed by some conclusion, from which you have to select the correct one.

• You should draw Venn diagrams for all the statements sequentially and find out the relation between them.
• Useful Tricks

All + All = All

All + No = No

All + Some = No Conclusion

Some + All = Some

Some + No = Some Not

Some + Some = No Conclusion

If there is a case of “Possibility”, then:

1. If All ‘A’ are ‘B’ = Some ‘B’ are Not ‘A’ is a Possibility.

2. If Some ‘B’ are Not ‘A’ = All ‘A’ are ‘B’ is a Possibility.

3. If Some ‘A’ are ‘B’ = All ‘A’ are ‘B’ is a Possibility & All ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a Possibility.

#### Types of Premises

There are 4 types of Premises.

1. All A are B – The general representation of this premise is as shown below:

But there may be a case where A = B, then also this premise is true.

2. No A are B – This premise is represented as:

3. Some A are B – It can be depicted as:

The shaded portion denotes the premise.

Note: Looking at this general representation, one may perceive that if ‘some A are B’ then ‘some A are not B’.

But the following cases can also imply ‘Some A are B’:

• All B are A
• All A are B
• A and B are identical

We can see that in the case where

1. A is a subset of B or

2. A = B,

The premise ‘some A are not B’ does not hold true.

4. Some A are not B

This premise can also be represented as-

### Solving Syllogisms Using Venn Diagram

Venn diagram method is an effective and precise method to solve syllogism problems. You can follow the below steps to answer them:

• In order to solve a syllogism, first draw the standard diagram based on the given statement.
• Then try to check which of the given conclusions follow in every possible case.
• If a conclusion is true for one case but is negated for the other possible representation, it is not considered as a conclusion.
• In other words, a conclusion follows only if it is true for all the possible cases.

Now, look into some examples of solving syllogisms by Venn diagram method which will help understand the topic better.

#### Example 1

Statement:

• Some reds are crows.
• All crows are yellows.
• All yellows are rabbits.

Conclusion:

1. All crows are rabbits.
2. Some yellows are reds.
3. Some reds are rabbits.

Solution:

From the first statement, some reds are crows. This can be represented as:

Next statement says all crows are yellows. So, the circle ‘yellow’ must engulf ‘crow’.

Next, we have all yellows are rabbits. So, the circle ‘rabbit’ engulfs ‘yellow’.

This is the standard representation of all the statements taken together. Now we will check the conclusions based on this representation.

• Conclusion 1: All crows are rabbits

From the diagram, we can see that the circle ‘rabbit’ engulfs the circle ‘crow’. So, conclusion 1 follows.

• Conclusion 2: Some yellows are reds

We can see that the circles ‘yellow’ and ‘red’ intersect each other. So, conclusion 2 also follows.

• Conclusion 3: Some reds are rabbits

We can see that the circles ‘rabbit’ and ‘red’ intersect each other. So, conclusion 3 also follows.

Hence all of the given conclusions follow.

Check About SSC CGL Analogy Reasoning

### Syllogism Questions for SSC CGL 2017

Have a pen with you. Go through all the concepts one by one. Understand how to draw Venn Diagram for each concept.

• Understand how the conclusion are made for each concept.
• Work out the problem.
• Go one by one.
• Understand it
• Make sure you are thorough enough with the given concept.
• You don’t need to memorize any statement or any conclusions.
• All you need is to UNDERSTAND.

First step is to make a Venn Diagram, second step is deriving the conclusion. Let’s go to all possible concepts. (Concepts = Statements).

Question 1 – Statements:

• Some calls are message.
• All messages are chat.

Conclusion:

1. Some chats are calls.

2. All calls are chats.

3. All messages are calls.

a) None follows

b) Only 1 follows

c) Only 1 and 2 follows

d) Only 2 and 3 follows

Question 2 – Statements:

Conclusions:

a) Only 1 and 2 follows

b) Only 2 and 3 follows

c) Only 1, 2 and 3 follows

d) None of these

Question 3 – Statements:

• No WhatsApp is Instagram.

Conclusions:

1. No WhatsApp is skype.

a) If only conclusion 1 follows

b) If only conclusion 2 follows

c) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows

d) If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

Question 4 – Statement:

• Some boxes are hammers.
• Some hammers are deal.
• All deals are rings.

Conclusion:

1. Some rings are hammers.

2. Some hammers are boxes.

3. Some rings are boxes.

a) None follows

b) Only 1 follows

c) Only 1 and 2 follows

d) Only 2 and 3 follows

Question 5 – Statements:

• All trains are buses.
• No metro is bus.
• All boats are metro.

Conclusions:

1. No boat is train

2. No bus is boat

3. No train is metro

a) All follow

b) Only 1 and 2 follows

c) Only 2 and 3 follows

d) Only 1 and 3 follows

We hope the diagrams and explanations might help you remember the methods involved to solve syllogism questions during the exams.

Every Accomplishment starts with the decision to try, so start practicing and trust yourself. You know more than you think you do.

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