Master of Philosophy in Food Science and Technology is a minimum 1 or maximum 2 years advanced postgraduate research degree and generally awarded to graduate students after going through several rigorous years of original research. In India, there are a few universities offering the M.Phil. degree, and typically the duration of the course is two years long. The field of Science and Technology is suitable for meritorious postgraduates in Food Science, Food Technology and allied subjects along with basic knowledge of Chemistry. Besides that, students must have studied Mathematics at their Bachelor’s and Master’s level.
Some universities such as Periyar University offer the M.Phil. course in Food Science and Nutrition which is almost similar to Food Science and Technology since food science, nutrition and dietetics are inter-related. Food science applies to almost any scientific discipline dealing with the study of food while technological applications are the focus of the postgraduate programs in food technology.
|Name of the course||M.Phil. Food Science and Technology or Master of Philosophy in Food Science and Technology|
|Duration of the course||1 or 2 years|
|Stream||Food Science and Technology|
|Average course fee||INR 90,000|
|Sectors of employment||-|
|Average entry-level salary||INR 350,000|
|Top entrance exams (if available)||CET Common Entrance Test (CET)|
Drawing from many principles such as biology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry, the branch of Food Science and Technology is the application of food science in the manufacturing of food products. With an attempt to better understand food processes and to improve food products for the public, the food scientists study the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. The people working at the food industries makes use of the practical application of various scientific principles involved in the food processing for the production, preservation, processing, handling and packing of food materials. In food processing industry, food technologists control and supervise the production of processed food items. Food consumed by us on a daily basis goes through an extensive research which is a systematic investigation related to variety of foods’ properties and compositions. Post the initial steps of research and development, mass production of food products is done using principles of food technology.
Candidates have several options in this field and can specialize in fruit and vegetable processing; cereal technology; oil seed technology; food chemistry; food microbiology; postharvest technology; animal products technology; or development of food processing machinery.
Due to rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes happening worldwide, the branch of Food Science, relatively a new discipline, is growing exponentially. Being a multi-disciplinary in nature, Food Science involves chemistry (organic, inorganic and physical), biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition, chemical and process engineering. There is a growing market demand for more advancements in the field of food science and technology globally.
The duration of the M.Phil. course is over a period of 1 year from the commencement of the course, divided into two semesters and can also extend up to 2 years depending on the university.
Few of the institutes like Bharathiar University offer part time M.Phil. courses. The maximum period of completion for this course is 2 years in case of full-time candidates and 3 years in case of part-time candidates.
|Sr.No.||College/Institute||State||Tuition Fees (per annum)||Duration||Course Offered|
|1||Periyar University, Salem||Tamil Nadu||7,900 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|2||Bharathiar University, Bangalore||Karnataka||8,000 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|3||Women’s Christian College, Chennai||Tamil Nadu||12,000 INR||2 years||M.Phil. in Foods and Nutrition|
|4||Ethiraj College, Chennai||Tamil Nadu||5,000 – 8,000 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|5||Dr N.G.P. Arts And Science College, Coimbatore||Tamil Nadu||8,000 INR||2 years||M.Phil. in Food and Nutrition|
|6||Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management (GITAM University), Visakhapatnam||Andhra Pradesh||53,000 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Technology|
|7||Maharaja Co-Education Arts and Science College, Erode||Tamil Nadu||9,000 INR||2 years||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|8||Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore||Tamil Nadu||9,000 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|9||RIMT University, Gobindgarh||Punjab||65,000 INR||1 year||P.G. Diploma Course in Legal & Forensic Sciences|
|10||Dhanabagyam Krishnaswamy Mudaliar (DKM)Women's College, Vellore||Tamil Nadu||9,000 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|11||GITAM University, Bangalore||Karnataka||48,500 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|12||Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore||Madhya Pradesh||15,000 INR||1 year||M.Phil. in Food Science and Technology|
|13||Gandhigram Rural Institute, Dindigul||Tamil Nadu||15,000 INR||2 years||M.Phil. in Food Science and Nutrition|
|14||Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer||Rajasthan||17,000 INR||2 years||M.Phil. in Foods and Nutrition|
Candidates seeking admission to the degree of M.Phil must have obtained the Master‘s degree in science or engineering with at least 55% marks in the subject selected for M.Phil course or an allied subject at the postgraduate level along with the successful completion of Bachelor’s degree course. Also, the percentage criteria vary from institute to institute. For general category, the cutoff is 55% in UG and PG whereas for SC / ST candidates, it is 50% marks.
For Periyar University, candidates who have qualified for postgraduate degree in Food Science and Nutrition, Foods and Nutrition, Food Service Management and Dietetics, Applied Nutrition, Food Technology, Food Processing, Food Engineering, Medicine, Agriculture, Home Science, Biochemistry and Catering Science and Technology with a minimum of 55% marks are eligible to register for the Degree of M.Phil in Food Science and Nutrition.
The university conducts an Entrance Examination (written test) for all the eligible candidates to assess the candidate’s knowledge of the subject. Those who qualify in the written test will have to appear for the interview round with the professors at the university. Some universities directly call for the interview process, if the candidate has qualified UGC NET or any other equivalent national level examination.
Last date for submission of filled in M.Phil application forms for Periyar University is generally around third week of May and entrance test is conducted in the last week of May.
Admissions are also made through a CET Common Entrance Test (CET) followed by an interview. CET is a competitive exam conducted for admissions to various professional colleges in order to pursue a professional degree course in medicine, dental, engineering, architecture, etc. CET for the eligibility requirement of admission to M. Phil degree varies from university to university located in a particular state. Also, the availability of application forms and examination dates differ as per the university norms.
There is an exception for candidate qualified in CSIR-UGC NET, ICMR, SLET, GATE, GPET, and fellowship holders with one-year experience /scientists working at DRDO/foreign candidates – they need not appear for entrance test and will be directly admitted to the M.Phil. program through interview.
Successful shortlisted candidates (as per the M.Phil. slots available in any university) will have to appear for an interview to be conducted by the (Research Committee) of the concerned discipline to discuss their research interest/area and formally recommend their admission and supervisor, as applicable.
Those who have successfully completed the M.Phil. or Ph.D. programs in food technology can easily find job openings in food processing and manufacturing companies; food packaging industries; food research and analysis laboratories; baby food manufacturing companies; catering department of railways, airlines; and many others. The Union government also has various schemes which provide financial support to educated, unemployed youth for setting up food manufacturing and preservation units. Other than that, M.Phil. holders are also eligible for teaching posts at universities. M.Phil. holders can also explore higher studies which means coming up with greater ideas and implementing them – they can go for PhD in the same field of Food Science and Technology/Nutrition.
As a fresher, a Food Technologist can earn between INR 20 – 25K per month (average). With more experience and expertise, one can reach INR 500,000 – 640,000 per annum. With 10+ years of experience, one can easily expect an annual package of INR 900,000 – 1,180,000. For nutritionist and dieticians, average salary is INR 210,000 for fresher; and Nutrition Managers can earn INR 750,000 per annum (average). Academic or teaching roles will pay as per the University pay scales
World over, many foreign companies are showing huge interest to invest in the Indian Food Processing sector; notable ones are Kraft (USA), Mars (USA), Nestle (Switzerland), McCain (Canada), Danone (France), Ferrero (Italy), Kelloggs (USA), Pepsi (USA), Coca Cola (USA), Hindustan Unilever (Anglo-Dutch), Heinz (USA), Hershey (USA).
Food Science M.Phil. holders also work in a range of areas in the land-based sector, focusing at agriculture and animal-related areas as well as fresh produce, food service and retail. Additionally, Food Science research fellows can enter a range of professions, including quantity assurance professional, agricultural scientist, laboratory technician and marketing associate professional.
Some of The Designations/Sector and Their Description in Field of Food Science and Technology:
|Job Title/Sector||Job Description||Salary (per annum)|
|Food Technologist||As a food technologist, one could be involved in developing the manufacturing processes and recipes of food and drink products and work on existing and newly-discovered ingredients to invent new recipes and concepts. The job requires to make sure food products are produced safely, legally and are of the quality claimed||INR 300,000|
|Dietician||The responsibility of a dietician is to plan and supervise the preparation of diets designed for patients, and work in hospitals, clinics, health care centres, wellness programmes, fitness, sports centres or own private clinics||INR 300,000|
|Nutritionist/ Nutritional Therapist||The job of a nutritionist is more in research field and to work in the areas of food science, community development, research projects and FMCGs such as Nestle, Cadbury, Unilever, or pharmaceutical companies like GSK, Eli Lilly, Novartis. Public health nutritionists also work in the developmental sector like UNICEF||INR 550,000|
|Research and Development||The job involves conducting research on various food items to locate right type of food which can provide a balanced mix of vitamins, minerals etc., needed for the body||Stipend based on University norms (For example, salary offered for Junior Research Fellow (JRF) in Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI) is in the range of Rs. 16,000/- to Rs. 18,000/- per month|
|Food Product Companies||Plan and research new products and check the nutritional quality of their products||INR 300,000|
|Government and UN Organisations||The idea is to work for social welfare and public health departments which help at community levels to improve the health of the public||INR 400,000|
Employment Sectors for Food Science and Technology M.Phil. Holders
|Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4|
|Components of Research Problem, Various Steps in Scientific Research, Types of Research Basic and Applied research. Hypotheses, Research Design- Survey Research, Case Study||Measures of Central tendency and distribution – mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance. Basic principles of probability theory, Normal distribution, statistical inference – Types of errors and levels of significance. Comparison of variance (F-test), small sample test, t-test for comparison of means, Chi square test. Correlation and Linear regression.||Processing and preservation by heat: Blanching, pasteurization, sterilization and UHT processing, canning, extrusion cooking, dielectric heating, microwave heating, baking, roasting and frying. Drying of milk, fruit juices and liquid foods. Phase change operations – Freezing and thawing. Mechanical refrigeration and refrigerants.||Processing and preservation by non-thermal methods: High pressure, pulsed electric field, hurdle technology, membrane filtration, pulsed electric, irradiation and other non-thermal technologies. food fermentations, pickling smoking Food additives; permissible limits and safety aspects. Milling technology, turbo milling, conventional wet and dry milling –flouring, Baking technology, Food processing equipment.|
|Research, semi experimental and Experimental research. Data Collection, Sources of Data,|
|Primary Data, Secondary Data. Questionnaire. Sampling methods. Sampling Errors|
|Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4|
|Physical and chemical properties of foods, Nutritive value of foods, RDA Meal planning. Dietary fiber, Vitamins and minerals. Food adulteration, BMI, BMR, Sources, functions, digestion and absorption of proximate foods, PUFA, MUFA||Food spoilage: perishable and non-perishable foods, canned foods, Fermented foods, Probiotics and prebiotics. Postharvest processing and preservation of plant foods. Spices and condiments, beverages, confectionery. Egg processing, Meat, poultry, Marine foods: composition, processing and preservation methods.||Packaging and labeling: Methods, Flexible and rigid packaging materials and properties, traditional packaging, Active, smart and intelligent packaging. Nutrition labeling, nutrition and health claims. PFA, AGMARK, FPO, MPO, BIS, ISI, FSSAI, GMP, GHP, GAP, HACCP, CODEX Aliment Arius, Risk assessment.||Nutrient deficiency disorders, Principles of diet therapy, diet diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cancer. Functional foods, nutraceuticals, Antioxidant rich foods. Food Product development: marketing and commercialization, plant layout. Scope and principle behind entrepreneurship development, entrepreneurial qualities.|
|Handbook of Food Science, Technology and Engineering by Yiu H. Hui|
|Objective on Food Science and Technology by D Mudgil|
|Food Science and Technology by George F. Stewart, Maynard A. Amerine, Bernard S Schweigert and John Hawthorn|
|Food Science and Technology by Geoffrey Campbell Platt|
|Wiley: Food Science & Technology|
|Food Science & Nutrition: Springer|
|Textbook on Food Science & Technology by Avantina Sharma|
|Food Science by B. Srilakshmi|
|Food Science and Nutrition by Sunetra Roday|