Doctor of Philosophy or simply PhD in Commerce is a research-based doctoral course that can be pursued after completing a master degree. The actual length of the course depends on the research. PhD Commerce takes a minimum of 3 years of duration to get completed and can be studied up to a maximum of 6 years.
This course generally covers a range of subjects related to business, such as accounting, finance, forecasting, management and budgeting. A candidate pursuing this course will have to do research in any one of these areas and will have to submit the thesis at the end of the course.
The admission to this course is based on the entrance exam score. The candidates need to qualify the national level entrance test or university level test for securing admission. UGC NET is a national level entrance exam used for granting admission to the PhD course.
The average fees for PhD in Commerce range from INR 5,000 to INR 5,00,000, depending on the institute and the complexity of research.
According to The WEEK 2019 survey, the best commerce colleges in India offering PhD in Commercecourseare :
|The Week'19 Rank||Name of Institute||City||Admission Process||Average Course Fee||Average Placement Offer|
|3||Loyola College||Chennai||Entrance Test + PI||INR 18,000||INR 5,50,000|
|8||Christ University||Bangalore||CUET+ PI||INR 30,000||INR 6,85,000|
|16||KJ Somaiya College of Arts and Commerce||Mumbai||PET + PI||INR 1,99,000||INR 13,25,000|
|17||Mount Carmel College||Bangalore||Entrance Test + PI||INR 90,000||INR 2,95,000|
|25||Mithibai College||Mumbai||PET + PI||INR 41,000||INR 3,50,000|
The course provides the students with a quality education that serves the needs of business and industry management. The important research areas covered during this course include Accounting and Taxation, Business and Finance, Entrepreneurship, Marketing Management, etc.
After completing the course, a candidate can find jobs in fields of business, marketing and education. The most popular job positions for such candidates are lecturer, Professor, CEO, etc.
The minimum salary offered to PhD Commerce candidates generally lies around INR 3,00,000, while the maximum salary offered is around INR 40,00,000. The average placement package offered is around INR 10,00,00.
A candidate completing this course can also go for further research on a specialized area. After that, they can enroll themselves in a postdoctoral degree.
PhD in Commerce Admission Process
- PhD in Commerce admissions are done mainly through Entrance Test followed by personal interview conducted by the respective institute/university.
- National level entrance exams such as UGC NET / UGC CSIR NET / GATE / SLET or University entrance exam are conducted for granting admission to PhD courses.
- Reservations are applicable to SC / ST / EWS / OBC NCL / PwD candidates as per Govt. of India rules.
PhD in Commerce Merit Based Admission
Step 1 - Apply to the college with all the relevant documents.
Step 2 - The Selection Committee will call eligible candidates possessing the minimum educational requirements for an interview andor test.
Step 3 - Based on the academic record and the performance of the candidates in the interview, the Selection Committee will recommend the names of candidates found suitable for admission.
PhD in Commerce Entrance Based Admission
Step 1 - Candidates need to register to the official website by providing their email id, mobile number, and password.
Step 2 - Filling up the online form with personal and academic details and course details.
Step 3 - Upload all the scanned documents like candidate’s Photograph, Signature, Photo Identification, mark sheets, caste certificate, etc.
Step 4 - Submit the application fee and form, and download the form for future references.
Step 5 - Admit cards will be issued to the eligible students based on the information provided by candidates.
Step 6 - On the announcement of results, based on the marks obtained by the students and institutes cut off, seats and academic records of the candidate’s seats are allocated.
Important documents to be submitted
- Proof of birth date
- Passing/Degree certificate of the last qualifying degree examination
- Migration Certificate / No objection certificate from the University / Employer last attended
- Gap certificate if applicable
- Scorecard of the entrance exam
- Character certificate from the head of the institute from which the student has obtained his qualifying degree.
- Research Proposal: The Research Proposal is written by the student in collaboration with his proposed guide and signed by all parties. The proposed title of the PhD. the thesis should be such that no study of a similar nature has been or will be completed.
Read more on Top Commerce colleges in India.
PhD in Commerce Eligibility Criteria
- Candidates should hold a Master’s Degree in Commerce / MBA / MPhil in commerce from a recognized university/institution.
- Minimum aggregate marks required for master degree are 55%.
- In the case of reserved category SC / ST / OBC / PH candidates relaxation of 5% marks or equivalent grade is given as per UGC guidelines.
- Candidates who are in the final year of their masters are also eligible to apply, provided they complete all their qualifying degree requirements before the third week of July.
- Experience of five years of teaching/industry/administration is also demanded by few colleges.
- There is no age bar to apply for the course.
PhD in Commerce Entrance Exams
Candidates need to qualify the entrance exam conducted by UGC, State or university to secure a seat in PhD in Commerce. Below is a list of some entrance exams applicable for PhD programs:
- The exam is conducted by the National Testing Agency for admission to various PhD courses.
- The UGC NET score is valid for 3 years in case of JRF and Lifetime for Assistant Professor.
- This entrance exam does not have any restriction on the number of attempts.
- It is available in 84 subjects at 91 selected cities.
- It is conducted online and consists of two papers of 100 marks each mainly in Hindi and English.
- The candidates would have to attempt a total of 150 questions in three hours.
- It is held twice a year in the months of June and December.
UGC CSIR NET
- It is a national-level exam conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) to select candidates for the award of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) and for determining their eligibility for appointment as lecturers in Indian universities and colleges.
- It is a Computer Based Test mode only.
- Online applications are invited twice a year on an all India basis through Press Notification.
The important updates related to some of the important Entrance exams are tabulated in the table below:
|Exam Name||Conducting Body||Application Period*||Exam Date*||Exam Mode|
|UGC CSIR NET||NTA||March 16 to June 30, 2020||To be notified||Online|
|PET 2020||BAMU||3rd week of May to 4th week of 2020||Tentatively in August 2020||Online|
|UGC NET 2020||NTA||March 16 to April 16, 2020||June 15 to June 20, 2020||Online|
|CRET 2020||Allahabad University||March 4, 2020||March 19, 2020||Online|
|DUET 2020||NTA||June 20, 2020||Not yet released||Online|
How to prepare for the PhD Entrance Exam?
To perform well in these examinations, candidates should have an in-depth knowledge of all the important topics of Commerce. Generally, the PhD entrance exam pattern consists of two parts i.e Research Aptitude and Subject Specific.
- Research aptitude section consists of logical reasoning, numerical ability and Language Proficiency.
- The Subject-Specific section consists of various topics included in the compulsory / core papers at the Post Graduation level.
- The PhD entrance test questions paper is divided into objective type (Multiple Choice questions ) and subjective type questions for a maximum of 100 points, and the examination period is two hours, or in some cases three hours.
- Practising sample questions papers and model tests certainly offers students an advantage because they get to know the exam's style and layout well beforehand.
- Students should be able to use their time efficiently because in about two hours they need to answer between 120 - 150 questions, which means that a minute is given to answer each question.
Some reference books to prepare for the entrance exam are given below:
- Donald R. Cooper and Pamela S. Schindler- Business Research Methods, McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
- Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.
- Francis J. Rummel and Wesley C. Ballina, Research Methodology in Business, Harper & Row, New York.
- Sharma, K.R., Research Methodology, National Publishing House, Jaipur.
- Hooda, R.P. Statistics for Business and Economics, Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi.
- Sharma, J.K. Business Statistics, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 2004
How to get admission in a top PhD in Commerce institution?
- To secure a seat in a good college for a PhDinCommerce, a candidate must perform exceptionally well in the entrance exams.
- Candidates must look out for advertisements for PhD. admission as it happens all year but to be aware of the vacancy in the research area of your choice.
- Candidates should put their time and effort in their research proposal and be prepared for a personal interview round.
- Preparing for the entrance exam well in advance and solving mock tests before the test day.
- Look out for the eligibility, cut-offs, selection criteria, admission process, application procedure, and other updates to benefit you for better preparation.
PhD in Commerce: What is it About?
- The Doctor of Philosophy in Commerce is a research-based degree awarded to candidates who completed their research on a particular topic of the subject.
- The aim of the PhD Commerce program is to equip students with the necessary skills to identify and conduct research on complex issues in the specialized commercial field.
- The curriculum is committed to training leaders of thought for both the academic and business world.
- The program is specifically designed to meet the academic needs of working executives/managers/members of faculty/researchers/entrepreneurs.
- The research work must be an original work characterized either by the discovery of facts or by a fresh approach towards the interpretation and application of facts.
- The research may also involve the development of equipment making a distinct advancement in instrument technology.
PhD in Commerce: Course Highlights
The major highlights of the course are given in the table below:
|Duration||Minimum of 3 years - Maximum of 6 years|
|Eligibility Criteria||Post Graduation|
|Admission Process||Entrance Test|
|Course Fee||INR 5000 - INR 5 Lakh|
|Average Salary||INR 3 Lakh - INR 30 Lakh|
|Top Recruiting Companies||Accenture, E&Y, Genpact, Tech Mahindra Ltd., HDFC Bank, National Stock Exchange, Reserve Bank of India, Mumbai University etc.|
|Top Job Areas||Businesses, Marketing, Finance sectors, Public Sectors, Education, HR, etc.|
|Job Positions||Business Analysts, Finance Managers, CFO, CEO, etc.|
Why Study PhD in Commerce?
- The PhD course develops a deep and broad understanding of the fundamentals and thorough knowledge in the field chosen through courses and self-study.
- It is an opportunity to become an expert in your chosen topic and to contribute to knowledge both academically and practically.
- It improves your prospects of highly-paid employment and opens up a wide range of opportunities.
- After completing a PhD in Commerce, a candidate can apply for topmost positions, including the position of CEO and CFO, in the job market.
- Not only this, but the candidate will also get easily employed as faculty members in any renowned college or university.
- It commands higher rewards and respect, widens your network and opportunities in the business.
PhD in Commerce vs PhD in Management Studies
PhD. in Commerceand PhD in Management Studies are almost similar courses except for a few differences. The below-given comparison is given keeping in mind all the important parameters of differences:
|Parameters||PhD in Commerce||PhD in Management Studies|
|Overview||The study that combines elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies and economics.||The study of the technique, practice, or science of managing a company, business, etc|
|Average Annual Fees||INR 5,000 - INR 5,00,000||INR 10,000 - INR 3,00,000|
|Duration||Minimum of 3 years - Maximum of 6 years||Minimum of 3 years - Maximum of 6 years|
|Eligibility Criteria||Post Graduation in Commerce||Post Graduation in Management Studies|
|Admission Process||Entrance Test||Entrance Test|
|Top Colleges||Loyola College, Christ University, KJ Somaiya College of Arts and Commerce, Mount Carmel College, Mithibai College||IIM's, Institute of Management technologies, LPU, Amity Business School|
|Top Recruiting Companies||Accenture, E&Y, Genpact, Tech Mahindra Ltd., HDFC Bank, National Stock Exchange, Reserve Bank of India, Mumbai University etc.||TATA, CISCO, Microsoft, DELL, Wipro|
|Top Recruiting Area||Businesses, Marketing, Finance sectors, Public Sectors, Education, HR, etc.||Retail management, business, marketing, sales and services, consultancies, industries, etc|
|Job Positions||Business Analysts, Finance Managers, CFO, CEO, etc.||Business analyst, data analyst, management analyst, marketing manager, production manager, etc|
|Average Annual Salary||INR 3 Lakh - INR 30 Lakh||INR 2 lakh - INR 20 Lakhs|
Source: College Websites
PhD in Commerce Top Colleges
Here is the top PhD. in Commerce college list for your reference. These colleges show the admission process, location, and average fee charged for this course
|Name of the Institute||City||Admission Process||Average Course Fee|
|Department of Commerce, University of Delhi||Delhi||DUET||INR 3,685|
|Pondicherry University||Pondicherry||PUEE||INR 23,283|
|Xavier University (XUB)||Bhubaneshwar||XRAT||INR 20,000|
|Manipal Academy of Higher Education||Manipal||MET||INR 59,000|
|ISBR Business School||Bangalore||Entrance Test||INR 1,00,000|
|Mody University||Sikar||Entrance Test||INR 99,000|
|University of Jammu||Jammu||JUET||INR 50,000|
|Royal Global University||Guwahati||Entrance test||INR 1,36,000|
|Reva University||Bangalore||REVA PET||INR 81,000|
|Jagannath University||Jaipur||JET||INR 1,80,000|
Source: College Websites
Below given is the college comparison of the top PhD in Commerceoffering colleges in terms of several parameters like average fee, college overview, admission process, top recruiter, and many others.
|Parameters||Loyola College||Christ University||KJ Somaiya College of Arts and Commerce|
|Overview||Loyola College Chennai, established in 1925 and granted the status of autonomy in 1978, is affiliated to the University of Madras.||It is a deemed private university. It is recognized by UGC and accredited by NAAC.||KJSAC is a premier educational institute located in Mumbai. It is an autonomous institution with A Grade accreditation by NAAC.|
|Eligibility Criteria||Post Graduation in Commerce||Post Graduation in Commerce||Post Graduation in Commerce|
|Admission Process||Entrance test + PI||CUET + PI||PET + PI|
|Average Annual Fees||INR 18,000||INR 30,000||INR 1,99,000|
|Average Annual Salary||INR 5,50,000||INR 6,85,000||INR 13,25,000|
|Top Companies Visited||HCL, Cactus, Akshar Arbol Schools, Real Foundations, Sutherland and Many more||KPMG, Accenture, ICICI Bank, Deloitte, Ernst & Young||Delloite, Tcs, Wipro, KPMG, Godrej and many more|
Source: College Websites
PhD in Commerce Syllabus
The course has a variable time duration of 3 years to 6years and the syllabus is divided into various papers of areas related to the discipline of commerce. As it is a research-based course, it does not have any fixed academic syllabus. The PhD course work shall involve the following:
- Research Methodology
- Theory of Research
- Research Process
- Analysis of Data and Statistical application in research
- Specialization course / Research area
- Accounting & Taxation
- Banking and Finance
- Marketing Management
- Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management
- International Business
The actual Syllabus and curriculum of the course largely depend on the topic which the candidate will choose for his/her research.
PhD in Commerce: Research Areas
Commerce is the education of trade and business activities such as the exchange of goods and services from producer to the final consumer. The main research areas are finance, accounting, taxation, marketing, business, economics, human resource, much more.
|Research Area||Area Topics|
|Accounting & Taxation||Accounting: Information for Decision Making|
|Presentation and Reporting of Accounting Information|
|Statement of Cash Flows|
|Financial Statement Analysis|
|Global Business and Accounting|
|Costing System and Analysis|
|General Framework of Direct Taxation in India|
|Tax Planning and Management|
|International Business||Basics of International Business Environment|
|Balance of Payments|
|Government Influence on Trade|
|Introduction to Globalization|
|International Trade in Services|
|Multilateral Trading System|
|Regional Economic Groupings|
|International Product Planning|
|International Branding and Packaging|
|International Marketing Communication|
|Emerging Trends and Issues in International Marketing|
|Banking and Finance||Commercial Banks|
|Banking Sectoral Reforms|
|Basic Banking Services|
|Credit Rating in India|
|Reforms in Banking and Finance|
|International Financial System|
|Valuation of Securities|
|Marketing Management||Defining Marketing for the 21st century|
|Emerging Trends in marketing|
|Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management||Entrepreneurship and economic development|
|Creativity and Innovation in business|
|New Age entrepreneurship|
Meanwhile, check the full list of PhD in Business Management colleges in India
PhD in Commerce: Reference Books
Some reference books to guide and understand the concepts of research areas :
|Financial Accounting for Business Managers||Asish K. Bhattacharyya|
|Financial & Managerial Accounting, the basis for business decisions||Williams, Haka, Bettner|
|Contemporary Issues in Accounting||Shashi K. Gupta|
|Direct Taxes Planning and Management||Dr Vinod Kumar Singhania & Dr Monica Singhania|
|Income Tax Planning & Management||R.K. Jain|
|Multinational Financial Management||Shapiro Alan C|
|Financial Management Theory and Practice||Chandra, Prasanna|
|Principles and Practices of Banking, 2nd edition||Indian Institute of Banking & Finance|
|Research Methodology, Concepts and cases||Deepak Chawla and Neena Sondhi|
|Marketing management||Ranjan Saxena|
|The Rural Marketing Book||Kashyap Raut|
|Organisational Behaviour||Jit S Chandan|
|Think and Grow Rich||Napoleon Hill|
|Entrepreneurial Development||Vasant Desai|
PhD in Commerce Job Profile
- After the completion of the program, the candidate will have the required skills to explore their job scopes in the areas of business, Accounting, Operations, and Management.
- They can become Business Analysts, Finance Managers, CFO, CEO, Company Secretary, Finance Analysts, Managers, Professor, consultant, Investment bankerand so on.
The major job profiles have been tabulated in the table below:
|Job Profile||Job Description||Average Salary|
|Lecturer||Lecturers are subject experts who design, develop, and deliver material using a range of methods and platforms.||INR 4 Lakh - INR 6 Lakh|
|Business Finance Analyst||The role includes evaluating financial reports, analyzing reports and predicting business activity with the assistance of the sale team and developers.||INR 4 Lakh - INR 6 Lakh|
|Chief Financial Officer||The job involves overseeing personnel, discussing accounting and treasury roles, handling cash and controlling business operations.||INR 30 Lakh - INR 40 Lakh|
|Finance Manager||Research involves account control, data review and report creation. Investigating current market trends and building techniques for enterprise development.||INR 9 Lakh - INR 10 Lakh|
|Zonal Business Manager||The function involves sales management, revenue maximization delivery by collaboration with zonal teams and partners.||INR 8 Lakh - INR 17 Lakh|
|Business Consultant||Their role is to analyze the market, product lines and the overall profitability of the business.||INR 8 Lakh - INR 17 Lakh|
|Investment Banker||They basically help their clients to raise money in the capital market by issuing debt or selling their equity in the companies.||INR 4 Lakh - INR 12 Lakh|
|Finance Consultant||Through counselling them on tax preparation, savings and retirement plans and others, they help their clients achieve their short and long term goals.||INR 8 Lakh - INR 17 Lakh|
|Accountants||By collecting and analysing account information, they plan assets, liability and capital account entries.||INR 4 Lakh - INR 12 Lakh|
|Chief Executive Officer||The job involves handling the company activities by collaboration with the management and the board of directors. Implementation of innovations and the management of the firms' finances.||INR 29 Lakh - INR 30 Lakh|
PhD in Commerce Future Scope
- Having a PhD in Commerce opens numerous doors for graduates.
- Most choose to work for multinational or other large corporations.
- Meanwhile, some choose to work for government agencies or non-governmental organizations as subject matter experts or consultants.
- Students can also find gainful jobs at banks and other financial institutions as financial officers or managers.
- They are usually chosen to lead the organisation and hence are generally posted in higher positions.
- A PhD in Commerce can improve your prospects of highly paid employment.
- It also increases your opportunities for studying and working abroad.
- After this degree, a candidate can go abroad and take on advanced level research.
PhD in Commerce FAQs
Ques. What does a Research Proposal consist of?
Ans. It consists of Current status of knowledge of the topic of research; Aims of proposed research and methodology to be adopted; Nature of the data to be collected; Proposed method of analysis and interpretation; Expected contribution to the knowledge of the subject; and a detailed bibliography of the literature on the topic of research.
Ques. What is the selection process for PhD in Commerce?
Ans. Only those applications, which have been completed accurately and in full, and that, include the relevant certificates and other documents, as attachments will be considered. Candidates will be shortlisted, and those candidates who have been selected are required to take the entrance examination and appear for a personal interview. The final results will be announced once the marks obtained by the candidates in their postgraduate examination, entrance examination and personal interview have been consolidated.
Ques. Does financial assistance is provided for a PhD. in Commerce course?
Ans. It depends on college to college. Some colleges provide financial aids as well as scholarships. Some candidates are there selected for fellowship programs.
Ques. What is higher than a Doctorate degree?
Ans. A doctorate is the highest level of education. In terms of recognition, there are also fellowships of professional societies that are given to senior academics, while these are all prestigious, those from national academies are more prestigious than those from subject-specific societies.
Ques. Is the entrance test mandatory to secure a seat in PhD Programme?
Ans. Yes, it is. In order to qualify, it is mandatory to pass the written examination conducted by the University. The PhD entrance examination consists of two papers i.e General Aptitude & Research Methodology and A domain-specific subject as studied at the postgraduate level.
Ques. Can an undergraduate apply for PhD?
Ans. PhD programme is only open to students with a postgraduate degree from a recognized University. However, if a candidate with only an undergraduate degree, wants to pursue the PhD programme, he/she must have substantial years of work experience to supplement his academic background. Some institutes include provisions for an integrated Masters + PhD.
Ques. What is the eligibility to apply for PhD in Commerce?
Ans. Candidates who have qualified their post-graduation degree in commerce/ M. Phil. degree with a minimum aggregate of 55% marks and above from a recognized university listed under UGC/AIU are eligible for admission to the program. Candidate needs to qualify National level entrance test / University level entrance test and personal interview.
Ques. Can a person without a Commercebackground apply?
Ans. Students who do not have undergraduate degrees in BCom / BBA / BCom Hons can apply, but most have a solid academic background and a clear sense of direction can apply. Provided they hold a Masters’s degree and qualify the entrance testin the relevant discipline. The preference is given to a person with a background in Commerce.
Ques. What is the speciality of the course?
Ans. The course aims at introducing the students to a new industry, international, finance, and financial markets. The course is filled with the current business trends as well as general touch on all daily nature topics such as organizational behaviour, marketing, etc.
Ques. When can you apply for PhD Commerce?
Ans. The University/ Instituteadmits candidates twice a year in the months of January and July. However, applications are invited throughout the yearand seats are available based on the vacancy in the research area. Candidates need to check the website of the college timely.