CBSE Class 12 Dates (Released), Syllabus, Marking Scheme and Sample Papers

Updated On - November 13th 2019 by NEHA RANI

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a National Board of Education for schools in India. It is managed and administered by the Union Government of India. CBSE organizes class 10 and 12 board exams in March every year. For the year 2020, CBSE 12th board exam will be conducted during Feb 15 – April 4, 2020 (Tentative). CBSE board has instructed all schools to conduct practical exams/ internal assessments from January 1 to February 7, 2020.

Latest: CBSE 2020 Practical Dates and Pre – Board Dates has been announced on the official website – Check Here
  • CBSE is expected to reduce the number of descriptive questions in board exam 2020. 
  • More than 13 lac students appeared for the CBSE exam this year.
  • CBSE 12th board results will be released on May 2, 2020 (Tentative) in online mode.

Around 20,300 private and public schools including Kendriya Vidayalas, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, and 220 schools in 28 foreign nations are affiliated to CBSE. All the schools affiliated to CBSE have been advised to follow the NCERT curriculum.

Latest changes Introduced by CBSE

  1. The board has revised the syllabus, examination pattern and schedule for students appearing in class 12 board exam next year. The major changes introduced are:
  • State governments have been vested the power to evaluate the facilities provided by schools under CBSE
  • Exams for vocational subjects will be conducted in February.
  • Examination for all main subjects will end by March.
  • More time will be given to faculty for evaluating exam papers and results are likely to be declared earlier.
  • A number of analytical questions, short questions, and numerical will be increased to discourage rote learning.
  • Overlapping concepts in Physics and other subjects have been removed.
  • Group-15 of P block and Solid-state have been removed from Chemistry syllabus.
  1. CBSE has hiked exam application fees from INR 750 to INR 1500 for general category candidates, however, no exam fee is applicable for Delhi students.  
  • As per the recent reports, Deputy Chief Minister of Delhi, Manish Sisodia has announced that the students of Delhi government and aided schools are not required to pay the board exam fees.  
  1. Number of descriptive questions may reduce in CBSE board exam 2020. Below are the details:
  •  This year, there will be 33% internal choices in the question paper. 
  • 2 marks questions are expected to be more than that of 5 – 8 marks questions. 
  • There will be an increase in 1 mark objective type questions. 

CBSE 12th Pass Percentage Trend

CBSE 12th Board Highlights

Name of the BoardCentral Board of Secondary Education
Pre – Board exam date for 2019-20 batchDecember 16 to December 31, 2019 (Released)
Exam Date for 2019-20 batchFebruary 15 – April 4, 2020 
Practical Dates for 2020 January 1 to February 7, 2020 (Released)
Mode of ExamOffline
Result DateMay 2, 2020
Total Number of Student12,87,359
Total Number of Passed Students:10,05,427
Top Performing RegionTrivandrum

Pre - Board Datesheet

The promotion criteria for class 12 students is more than 33% overall. Additionally, they have to secure more than 33% in both practical and theoretical exams.

  • Students not passing in any one subject have to write compartment for the same in July.
  • Students only get 3 chances to clear all the papers.
  • Student failing compartment thrice or one who fails in two or more exams have to rewrite all the subjects next year.

CBSE Class 12 Exam Dates

CBSE has released the tentative board exam dates on the official website i.e. The exam is expected to begin from February 15, 2020. Final date sheet is expected to release in November till then candidates can check the tentative schedule given below.

DateSubject CodeSubject NameTiming
February 15, 2020035Hindi Music Melody Instrument10:30am to 1:30pm
604Office Procedure and Practices
776Garment Construction10:30am to 1:00pm
779Textile Chemical Processing
February 16, 2020032Carnatic Music Mel. Ins10:30am to 1:30pm
057Bharatnatyam Dance
059Oddisi Dance
062Mohinatayam Dance
076National Cadet Corps
606Office Communication
625Applied Physics
737Food and Beverages – Cost and Control
741Laboratory Medicines
743Retail Operations
748Information Storage and Retrieval
754Advanced Front Office Operations
781Cost Accounting
794Derivative Mkt Operations
775Basic n Development10:30am to 1:00pm
608Shorthand English10.30am to 12.30pm
610Shorthand Hindi
632AC and Refrigeration II
731Child Health Nursing
February 18, 2020031Carnatic Music Vocal10:30am to 1:30pm
073Knowledge Tradition and Practices
622Engineering Science
626Mechanical Engineering
729Basic Concepts Of Health Disease and Medical Termi
736Food Services
740Geospatial Tech
742Clinical Biochemistry and Microbiology
744Retail Services
747Library System and RS Management
753Front Office Operations
757Travel Agent and Top Bus
762Basic Horticulture
766Bus. Opertn and Admn.
772Design and Innovation
780Financial Accounting
745Beauty and Hair10:30am to 1:00pm
774Fabric Study
777Traditional Indian Textile
789Operation and Management of Communication device
797Construction Technology
668Radiography II10:30am to 12:30pm
February 20, 2020036Hindustani Music Per Ins10:30am to 1:30pm
053Fashion Studies
786Insurance10:30am to 1:00pm
627Auto Engineering
778Printed Textile10:30am to 1:00pm
February 20, 2020795Database Mgmt Appl
633AC and Refrigeration II10:30am to 12:30pm
February 21, 2020034Hindustani Music Vocal10:30 am to 1:30 pm
February 22, 2020733Health Centre Management10:30am to 1:30pm
793Capital Market Operations
790T Shoot and Mnt Of EE10:30am to 1:00pm
787Electrical Machine10:30am to 12:30pm
February 23, 2020785Banking10:30am to 1:30pm
628Auto shop RPR and PR10:30am to 1:00pm
746Holistic Health
788Elect. Appliances10:30am to 12:30pm
February 25, 2020072Mass Media Studies10:30am to 1:30pm
738U The EV and Forms of Mass Media
February 26, 2020734Food Prod – III10:30am to 1:30pm
739T CR and Com Proc MM
607Typography and CA – English10:30am to 12:30pm
609Typography and CA - Hindi
February 27, 2020735Food Prod – IV10:30am to 1:30pm
796Web Applications10:30am to 1:00pm
March 2, 2020001English Elective – N10:30am to 1:30pm
101English Elective – C
301English Core
March 5, 2020042Physics10:30am to 1:30pm
March 6, 2020055Accountancy10:30am to 1:30pm
March 7, 2020029Geography10:30am to 1:30pm
March 8, 2020104Punjabi10:30am to 1:30pm
March 8, 2020106Tamil10:30am to 1:30pm
189Telugu – Telangana
March 9, 2020002Hindi Elective10:30am to 1:30pm
302Hindi Core
March 11, 2020039Sociology10:30am to 1:30pm
March 12, 2020043Chemistry10:30am to 1:30pm
March 14, 2020054Business Studies10:30am to 1:30pm
March 15, 2020044Biology10:30am to 1:30pm
March 16, 2020049Painting10:30am to 12:30pm
052App/Commercial Art
March 18, 2020041Mathematics10:30am to 1:30pm
March 19, 2020028Political Science10:30am to 1:30pm
March 23, 2020022Sanskrit Elective10:30am to 1:30pm
074Legal Studies
322Sanskrit Core
March 25, 2020027History10:30am to 1:30pm
March 26, 2020003Urdu Elective10:30am to 1:30pm
056Kathak Dance
303Urdu Core
March 27, 2020030Economics10:30am to 1:30pm
March 28, 2020065Informatics Practical10:30am to 1:30pm
083Computer Science
March 29, 2020037Psychology10:30am to 1:30pm
March 30, 2020048Physical Education10:30am to 1:30pm
April 1, 2020046Engineering Graphics10:30am to 1:30pm
064Home Science
April 2, 2020040Philosophy10:30am to 1:30pm
075Human Rights and Gender Studies
078Theatre Studies
079Library and Info. Science
April 3, 2020067Multimedia and Web 10:30am to 1:30pm
756Intro to Hosp Mgmt

    CBSE Class 12 Paper Pattern

    The exam pattern for various streams of CBSE 12th is given below:

    Exam Pattern For Arts/Humanities Stream

    This paper generally consists of theoretical subjects which include psychology, history, geography, and other related subjects

    • Paper is divided into 3 to 4 sections and the maximum marks a candidate can score are 100.
    • Candidates are provided with 3 hours to complete the test.
    • There are MCQ questions in the first section of the paper which are of 1 mark each and short answer type questions which contain 2 marks each.
    • There are long answers in the later sections consisting 5 to 6 marks each in the later parts of the questions paper.

    Paper Pattern For Commerce Stream

    • This stream consists of subjects which are a mix of theory as well as practical/numerical questions.
    • Paper is divided into 3 parts comprising of MCQ, short answers and long answers questions mixed with theory and numerical questions.
    • 1st part of the question paper is of objective type question with 1 mark for the correct answer.
    • There are short answer questions which can be of 2 to 5 marks. These can be theoretical as well as numerical type questions.
    • Last part of the question paper is generally based on long answer type question of 6 marks each and can be of long theory question or numerical question.

    Paper Pattern For Science Stream (Medical)

    • Question paper for this stream is divided into 4- 5 parts.
    • There are MCQ type questions, Short answer type questions, and long answer type question as well.
    • There is no overall choice for questions however, there are choices provide externally for questions and candidates are given 3 hours to complete the test.
    • Part 1 which is MCQ type question comprises of 1 marks each.
    • There are 2 types of short answer questions which are 2 and 3 marks.
    • Question paper concludes with long answer type question of 5 marks.

    Paper Pattern For Science Stream (Non-Medical)

    • Question paper is divide into 4 parts.
    • Numerical questions are more as compared to theoretical questions.
    • There are very short answer, short answer, and long answer questions.
    • Part-1 is of very short answer type questions for which the students are given a maximum 1 mark.
    • Part 2 and 3 are the short answer for which candidates are given 2 and 3 marks respectively.
    • Part 4 is of long answer type question for which the candidates are given 5 marks.

    NOTE- There is NO NEGATIVE marking for any question attempted wrong or left un-attempted in any of the streams.

    A new type of questions which are known as VALUE BASED QUESTIONS is introduced in every paper which is of 4 marks each.

    CBSE Class 12 Important Books

    Important Books for Science StreamCBSE Chapter-wise Solutions – Mathematics (Class 12)Hemant Malhotra
    CBSE Examination Mathematics: 15 Sample Question Papers (Class 12)Prem Kumar
    Mathematics (Class – XII)NCERT
    CBSE Chapter-wise Questions-Answers: Chemistry Previous Year’ QuestionsSharma P
    CBSE Chapter-wise Solutions – Chemistry (Class 12): A Collection of Fully Solved Questions asked- ExaminationPurnima Sharma
    Chemistry (Class – XII)NCERT
    CBSE Chapter-wise Solutions – Physics (Class -12: Previous Year’s Questions)Singh S
    Physics (Class – XII)NCERT
    Concepts of Physics (Volume-1 and Volume-2)H C Verma
    Important Books for Arts StreamFlamingo Textbook in EnglishNCERT
    XamIdea English ClassEditorial Board
    CBSE All in one English coreArihant Experts
    Together with English CoreHemant Bedi and Rachna Jain
    CBSE Chapter-wise solved papersLucy Shaily
    15 sample question paper political scienceArihant Experts
    Chapter Wise CBSE Solved Paper Political ScienceArihant Experts
    Together with political scienceNamrata Singh
    15 sample question paper HistoryArihant Experts
    Chapter Wise CBSE Solved Paper HistoryArihant Experts
    History with a solutionDolly Haryal
    Important Books for Commerce StreamTwenty-Twenty Accountancy - Question Bank and Mock Test Papers for Class XIIVijayshree
    T.S. Grewal's an Aid to AccountancyT.S. Grewal
    CBSE Accountancy for Class - XIIVikas Sharma
    THE MIRACLE BOOK of Economics, Class XIIJ P Goel
    Average2Excellent CD Class XII - CBSE BoardAverage Excellent
    Eco Treasure Economics book for Class 12Amit Arora
    Shiv Das-CBSE-Class 12-Business Studies-Case StudiesTapan Pathak
    Business Studies Class - 12 Meena Verma
    Case Studies Mentor in Business Studies Class- XIIAlka Dhawan

    CBSE Class 12 Exam Results

    CBSE 12th Result will be declared on May 2 (Tentative) in online mode on the official website i.e. Candidates can check their results by entering their admit card id, school number, center number and board roll number. Follow the undermentioned steps to check their CBSE 12th class results.

    • Log onto the official website i.e. 
    • Click on the link stating “Senior School Examination (Class XII) 2020”.

    cbse 12 result

    • You will be redirected to the result portal.
    • Enter your Roll number, School number, Center Number and Date of Birth and Click on the Submit Button.

    cbse 12 result

    • Results will appear on the screen.
    • Download and Save it for future reference.

    Class 12 Improvement Exams

    Students who are not satisfied with their performance in the CBSE 12th exam can apply for improvement in the respective subjects. The application form for the same can be filled in the month of October and November. The tentative dates for class 12th improvement exam are tabulated below:-

    Availability of application formOctober 23, 2020
    Last date to apply forNovember 17, 2020
    CBSE 12 Improvement Exam 2020 Date15th February – 04th April 2020
    Result Declaration DateAugust 2020

    Criteria to Apply for Improvement in Class 12

    Candidates who passed the CBSE Board exam in 2018 and 2019 are eligible to apply for the 2020 improvement exam.

    • Candidates can choose more than one subject for improvement.
    • The application fee will vary according to the number of subjects chosen.
    • Candidates can prefer the latest or improvement result after the declaration of CBSE 2020 Improvement result.

    Students are advised to go through the eligibility criteria as per CBSE before applying for the improvement exam. If the candidate does not meet the eligibility criteria, his/her exam form will be canceled.

    • Candidates are eligible only if they have passed the previous Board Exam they had appeared for.
    • Only candidates who want to raise their previously scored marks are allowed to give the improvement exam.
    • He/she must have studied from CBSE Board.
    • He/she must not have a compartment in any subject.
    • He/she can only write improvement exam for the subjects he previously appeared for.
    • Improvement exam can be given for subjects out of the five main subjects only.

    Online Class 12 Improvement Form Submission Candidates can fill the online form from the month of October. The steps to apply for the same are given below:

    • Visit the official website of Central Board of Examination
    • Click on ‘Apply Online for Improvement exam’.
    • Enter Roll number and school name.
    • Next, Choose the subjects they want to give the exam in.
    • Enter the preferred choice of exam centers.
    • Provide the asked personal details.
    • Click the submit button and select the mode of payment.
    • After successful payment, the application form must be downloaded and printed for future reference.

    Fee SlabOutside IndiaDelhi SchemeAll India SchemeOnline form submission Dates
    Without late feeINR 900 for 5 subjectsINR 900 for 5 subjectsINR 5000 for 5 subjectsOctober 23, 2020, to November 17, 2020
    INR 180 per extra subjectINR 180 per extra subjectINR 1000 per extra subject
    INR 200 per subject for additional/improvementINR 200 per subject for additional/improvementINR 1000 per subject for additional/improvement
    Practical FeeINR 80 for each project work/practical subjectINR 80 for each project work/practical subjectINR 200 for each project work/practical subject
    With late fee (slab-I)Last date with late fee of INR 500November 18, 2020 to November 23, 2020
    With late fee (slab-II)Last date with late fee of INR 1000November 24, 2020 to November 30, 2020
    With late fee (slab-III)Last date with late fee of INR 2000December 01, 2020 to December 07, 2020
    With late fee (slab-IV)Last date with late fee of INR 5000December 08, 2020 to December 14, 2020

    Class 12th Improvement Result

    The result will be declared by the CBSE Board in the month of August. The best score from the Improvement and Board exam will be taken into consideration while making the final scorecard. CBSE releases the class 12th result online in the second week of May. Candidates can check their results on CBSE Class 12 (2019) Result Trends 12,05,484 students appeared for the CBSE class 12 examination this year, out of which 10,05,427 passed.

    • The pass percentage for boys is 79.4%, while for girls 79.4%. 83.4% of transgender students passed the examination.
    • Kendriya Vidyalas are the best performing schools with a pass percentage of 98.54%, followed by Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas with a pass percentage of 96.62% Pass percentage according to school type is given below:
    School TypePass Percentage
    Government Aided Schools88.49%
    Government Schools87.17%
    Private Schools82.59%

    CBSE 12- Top Performing Regions 2019

    There was an increase of 0.39 % in overall pass percentage this year. Regions having highest-pass percentage are:

    RankRegionPass %

    Compartment Exam

    Compartment exam for class XII will be conducted on June 2, 2020 (Tentative) by CBSE. Students who failed in one subject are eligible to give compartment of that particular subject. Maximum three chances are given to take the compartment exam. The student will be declared pass if he/she scores more than 33% in the compartment examination. 

    Exam dateSubjectExam Duration
    July 2, 2020All subjectsAs given on the question paper(s)

    CBSE 2020 Class 12 Toppers

    Hansika Shukla of Ghaziabad and Karishma Arora of Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh has topped the exam with 499 marks each followed by Gaurangi Chawla of Nirmal Ashram school Rishikesh, Aishwarya of Bareilly and Bhavya BR, Jind, Haryana with 498 marks each. Top 3 rankers are-

    1stHansika ShuklaDelhi Public School, Meerut Rd, Ghaziabad, UP499
    1stKarishma AroraSd Public School, Muzaffarnagar, Up499
    2ndGaurangi ChawlaNirmal Ashram Deepmala P Public School, Rishikesh498
    2ndAishwaryaKendriya Vidyalaya No 1, Rae Bareli, UP498
    2ndBhavyaB R S K International Public School, Safidon, Jind, HR498
    3rdAyushi UpadhyayLucknow Public School, South City, Lucknow UP497
    3rdMehak TalwarDelhi Public School Sec-24 Phase III, Rohini ND497
    3rdParth SainiSt. Luke`S Sr Sec School, Solan, HP497
    3rdVeeraj JindalVasant Valley School, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi497
    3rdAnanya GoelK L Intnl School, Somdutt Vihar, Garh Rd, Meerut, UP497

    Year wise trend- Class 12

    CBSE Class 12 Subject-wise syllabus

    Electric Charges and FieldsElectromagnetic InductionDual Nature of Radiation and Matter
    Electrostatic Potential and CapacitanceAlternating CurrentAtoms and Nucleus
    Current ElectricityElectromagnetic WavesSemiconductor Electronics Materials Devices
    Moving Charges and MagnetismRay Optics and Optical InstrumentsCommunication Systems
    Magnetism and MatterWave Optics-
    Chemistry in Everyday LifeThe P Block ElementsPolymers
    SolutionsThe D and F Block ElementsAldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
    ElectrochemistryCoordination CompoundsBiomolecules 
    Chemical KineticsHaloalkanes and Haloarenes-
    Surface ChemistryAlcohols Phenols and Ethers-
    General Principles of Isolation of ElementsOrganic Compounds Containing Nitrogen-
    Relations and FunctionsContinuity and DifferentiabilityDifferential Equations
    Inverse Trigonometric FunctionsApplication of DerivativesVector Algebra
    MatricesIndefinite IntegrationThree Dimensional Geometry
    DeterminantsDefinite IntegrationLinear Programming
    Limits and ContinuityApplication of IntegralsProbability
    Reproduction In OrganismsEvolutionOrganisms and Populations
    Sexual Reproduction In Flowering PlantsHuman Health and DiseaseEcosystem
    Human ReproductionStrategies For Enhancement In Food ProductionBiodiversity and Conservation
    Reproductive HealthMicrobes In Human WelfareEnvironmental Issues
    Principles of Inheritance and VariationBiotechnology and Its Applications-
    Molecular Basis of InheritanceBiotechnology: Principles & Processes-
    Flamingo (Prose)Flamingo (Poem)Vistas
    The Last LessonMy Mother at Sixty SixThe Third Level
    Lost SpringAn Elementry School Classroom in a SlumThe Tiger King
    Deep WaterKeeping QuietJourney To The End of Earth
    The RattrapA Thing of BeautyThe Enemy
    IndigoA Roadside StandShould Wizard Hit Mommy
    Poet and PancakesAunt Jennifers TigersOn The Face of It
    The InterviewEvents Tries an O Level-
    Going PlacesMemories of Childhood-
    English Elective
    Short Stories - IntroductionPoetry - IntroductionNon - Fiction - Introduction
    I Sell my DreamsA Lecture Upon the ShadowFreedom
    EvelinePoems by MiltonThe Mark on the Wall
    A Wedding in BrownsvillePoems By BlakeFilm - making
    TomorrowKubla KhanWhy the Novel Matters
    One CentimetreTreesThr Argumentative Indian
    The Wels Swan of CooleOn Science Fiction-
    Time and Time AgainDrama - Introduction-
    Broken Images--
    Business studies
    Principles and Functions of Management
    Nature and Significance of ManagementPrinciples of Management
    Business EnvironmentPlanning
    Business Finance and Marketing
    Financial ManagementMarketing Management
    Financial MarketsConsumer Protection
    Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit OrganizationsAccounting for Partnership Firms
    Accounting for CompaniesAnalysis of Financial Statements
    Cash Flow Statement-
    Introductory Macroeconomics
    National Income and Related AggregatesMoney and Banking
    Determination of Income and EmploymentEmployment
    Balance of Payments
    Indian Economic Development
    Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991Current Challenges facing Indian Economy
    Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours-
    Physical Education
    Planning in SportsSports & Nutrition
    Yoga & LifestylePhysical Education & Sports for CWSN (Children with Special Needs - Divyang)
    Children & Women in SportsTest & Measurement in Sports
    Physiology & Injuries in SportsBiomechanics & Sports
    Psychology & SportsTraining in Sports
    Programming and Computational ThinkingComputer Networks
    Data ManagementSociety, Law and Ethics
    The Story of the First Cities: Harappan ArchaeologyReligious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi TraditionRepresentations of 1857
    Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a storyNew Architecture: HampiColonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports
    Social Histories: using the MahabharataAgrarian Relations: The Ain-i-AkbariMahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes
    A History of Buddhism: Sanchi StupaThe Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through chroniclesPartition through Oral Sources
    Medieval Society through Travelers’ AccountsColonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official ReportsThe Making of the Constitution
    Human GeographyHuman settlementsTransport, Communication and International Trade
    PeoplePeopleGeographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
    Human ActivitiesHuman Settlements-
    Transport, Communication and TradeResources and Development-
    Political science
    Cold War EraSecurity in Contemporary WorldIndia’s External Relations
    The End of bipolarityEnvironment and Natural ResourcesChallenges to the Congress System
    US Hegemony in World PoliticsGlobalizationCrisis of the Democratic Order
    Alternative centres of powerChallenges of Nation BuildingRise of Popular Movements
    Contemporary South AsiaEra of One-Party DominanceRegional aspirations
    International OrganizationsPolitics of Planned DevelopmentRecent Developments in Indian Politics
    Introducing Indian SocietyChallenges of Cultural DiversityChange and Development in Rural Society
    The Demographic Structure of Indian SocietySuggestions for Project WorkChange and Development in Industrial Society
    Social Institutions-Continuity and ChangeStructural ChangeGlobalization and Social Change
    Market as a Social InstitutionCultural Change-
    Patterns of Social Inequality and ExclusionThe Story of Indian Democracy-
    Variations in Psychological AttributesPsychological DisordersSocial Influence and Group Processes
    Self and PersonalityTherapeutic ApproachesPsychology and Life
    Meeting Life ChallengesAttitude and Social CognitionDeveloping Psychological Skills
    Protein and Gene ManipulationCell Culture and Genetic Manipulation

    CBSE Exam Day Guidelines

    • It is mandatory to take exams in school uniform only.
    • Students must carry their respective CBSE class XII admit cards, signed by parents, to the allotted exam center.
    • All instructions given on the back of the admit card should be read carefully before appearing for the examination.
    • Banned items like mobile phones, calculators, and smartwatch and (or) any cheating material should not be carried to the exam hall.
    • Reporting time for the examination is 10 am.
    • The question paper will be distributed by the assistant superintendent at 10:15 am. 15 minutes will be given to candidates for going through the question paper and strategizing their action plan.
    • The duration of time given for each subject should be followed meticulously by the candidates.
    • Candidates should write their particulars on the answer book cautiously and double-check the details before submitting.

    *The article might have information for the previous academic years, which will be updated soon subject to the notification issued by the University/College

    Fee Structure



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