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    NEET Study Notes for Plant Anatomy, Classification of Tissues and Previous Year Solved Questions

    Nikkil Visha Nikkil Visha
    Exams Prep Master

    Plant Anatomy is considered to be the easiest and scoring section in the whole syllabus of Biology. The topic is very interesting and consists of 2- 3 questions in the paper that totals to 4 to 8 marks in the overall marks distribution of the paper. The most important topic from this chapter is Tissue System. This topic is quite fascinating but involves concepts that must be learned properly to score good marks in NEET

    • Candidates can expect some direct questions from this chapter. 

    • Ground Tissue System and Vascular Tissue System are some of the topics that need proper revision and attention. Check NEET Biology Syllabus

    Candidates can go through the brief notes below to prepare well for the exam. We have also provided the solved sample questions to help candidates in understanding the type questions that they can expect from this chapter. 

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    What are Tissue and its types?

    What are Tissue and its types?

    • A Tissue is defined as a group of similar or dissimilar cells which have common origin and perform some specific functions.

    • Tissues are mainly divided into three categories: Meristematic Tissues or Meristems, Permanent Tissues and Secretory Tissues.


    Meristematic Tissues and its types

    Meristematic Tissues and its types

    Below are given some of the characteristics of Meristematic Tissues:

    • Meristematic Tissues are metabolically very active and are capable of repeated divisions.

    • They contain immature and young cells.

    • They also contain a homogeneous thin wall.

    • Vacuoles are absent in meristematic tissues.

    • The shape of meristematic cells is isodiametric in shape.

    • Meristematic Tissues contain large nuclei and abundance of cytoplasm.

    • There is no intercellular space in Meristematic Tissues.

    • Chloroplast is absent in Meristematic Tissues.

    • They contain proto- plastids instead of plastids.


    Types of Meristematic Tissues

    Types of Meristematic Tissues

    The Meristematic Tissues are further classified on the basis of their mode of origin, position or function. Below is given the detailed information about its division:

    1. According to the Origin and Development: On the basis of their origin, Meristematic Tissues are classified into three types:

    • Promeristm or Primordial Meristem: The Promeristm originates from embryo and are therefore called Promeristm or Embryonic Meristem. Promeristm are present in the regions where an organ or a part of plant body is initiated.

    • Primary Meristem: A Primary Meristem is the one that originates from promeristem and retains its activities. It is located in the apices of roots, stems and leaf primordial.

    • Secondary Meristem: The Secondary Meristem always arise in the permanent tissues and have no typical promeristem.

    1. According to the Position: On the basis of their position, Meristematic Tissues are classified into three types:

    • Apical Meristem: This apical meristem is located at the growing apices of main and lateral shoots and roots. These cells are responsible for the linear growth of an organ.

    • Intercalary Meristem: Intercalary Meristem is the portion of apical meristems which are separated from the apex during the growth of axis and formation of permanent tissues.

    •  Lateral Meristem: The lateral meristems occur lately in the axis, parallel to the sides of stems and roots. This type of meristem consists of initials which divide mainly in one place and increases the diameter of an organ.

    1. According to the function: On the basis of their function, Meristematic Tissues are classified into three types:

    • Protoderm: Protoderm is the outermost layer of the apical meristem. It develops into the epidermis or the epidermal tissue system.

    • Procambiu: This type of tissue occurs inside the protoderm. The young cells that grow by elongation and differentiation give rise to the primary vascular system.

    • Ground Meristem constitutes the major part of the apical meristem. It mainly develops the ground tissues like hypodermis, cortex, endodermis etc.

    1. According to the plane of cell division: On the basis of their plane of cell division, Meristematic Tissues are classified into three types:

    • Mass Meristem: Mass of cells is formed when the cell divide anticlinally in all planes. Example of this type of tissue is formation of spores, cortex, pith and endosperm.

    • Plate Meristem: Plate like area sof this tissue increases when the cell divide anticlinally in two planes. Example of this type of tissue is formation of epidermis and lamina of leaves.

    • Ribe or File Meristem: Row or column of cell is formed when the cell divide anticlinally in one plane. Example of this type of tissue is formation of lateral roots.

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    Permanent Tissues and its types

    Permanent Tissues and its types

    Permanent tissues are the types of tissues which are made up of mature cells which have lost their capacity to divide themselves further. These cells have attained a permanent shape, size and function. The cells of these tissues are either living or dead, thin-walled or thick-walled.

    They are further divided into two types:

    Simple Tissues: Simple Tissues are the group of cells which are alike in origin, form and function. They are further classified into three categories:

    1. Parenchyma:

    • It is the most simple and unspecialized tissue.

    • It is concerned mainly with the vegetative activities of the plant.

    Collenchyma:

    • Collenchyma is the tissue of primary body.

    • The term was coined by Schleiden in 1839.

    • The cells of this tissue contain protoplasm and are living in nature.

    • The cell walls are thickened at the corners.

    • It is made up of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin.

    Sclerenchyma:

    • Sclerenchyma consists of thick walled dead cells.

    • The cells of Sclerenchyma vary in shape, size and origin.

    • The term was coined by Mettenius in 1805.

    Complex Tissues: Complex Tissues are further classified into two categories:

    Xylem:

    • Xylem is made up of tracheids, vesselsm xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.

    • The main transporting material of Xylem is two vessels and tracheids.

    • There are two primary xylem, Protoxylem and Metxylem.

    • Xylem has protoxylem at the centre.

    Phloem:

    • Phloem is made up of companion cells, sieve tube elements, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres in angiosperms.

    • In gymnosperm instead of sieve tube and companion cells, albuminous and sieve cells are present.

    • In monocotyledons, phloem parenchyma is absent.

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    Epidermal Tissue System

    Epidermal Tissue System

    1. Epidermal tissue comprises of the outer covering of the plants, such as epidermis, cuticle, stomata, epidermal extentions: trichomes in stem and root hair.

    1. Guard cells of the epidermal tissue system are been- shaped and contain chloroplasts.

    1. In this system, the root hairs are unicellular while the trichomes are multicellular in nature.

    1. The grasses have a dumb- bell shaped guard cells.

    1. Stomata regulate the gaseous exchange and water loss by transpiration.


    Ground and Vascular Tissue System

    Ground and Vascular Tissue System

    Ground Tissue System

    • The ground tissue system forms the major bulk of the tissues between epidermal and vascular tissues.

    • Examples of this tissue are cotex, pith, pericycle, etc.

    • They contain the simple tissues.

    • The mesophyll of leaves is a ground tissue which contains chloroplast.

    Vascular Tissue System

    • The vascular tissue system consists of complex tissues like xylem and phloem.
    • They have dicots which have cambium present between xylem and phloem of the vascular bundles.
    • The vascular bundles present in dicots are open.
    • The vascular bundles present in monocts are closed, i.e., cambium is absent.
    • Roots have a radial arrangement of vascular bundles, i.e. xylem and phloem are present alternatively
    • Stem and leaves have a conjoint arrangement of vascular bundles, i.e. xylem and phloem are present at the same radius

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    Dicotyledonous Root and Monocotyledonous Root

    Dicotyledonous Root and Monocotyledonous Root

    • The outermost layer of Dicotyledonous Root is the Epiblema which contains root hair.

    • Several layers of cortex present, that ends with innermost layer endodermis, which contains waxy material called suberin forming Casparian strips

    • There are two to six vascular bundles present in them.

    • The vascular bundles that are present are radial and Exarch vascular bundles.

    Monocotyledonous Root

    • The structure of the structure is similar to the dicotyledonous roots.

    • The difference lies in the fact that the xylem bundles are present in this.

    • There is no option of secondary growth.

    • Their pith is large.

    Dicotyledonous Stem and Monocotyledonous Stem

    • The outermost layer of the dicotyledonous stem is the epidermis with cuticle.

    • The cortex consists of three layers; outermost hypodermis (collenchymatous), middle parenchymatous cortical layer and the endodermis containing starch grains

    • The vascular bundles present in them are scattered, conjoint and open and are arranged as a ring.

    • Stomata and trichomes are present on the epidermis.

    Monocotyledonous Stem

    • The hypodermis present in them is sclerenchymatous.

    • The vascular bundles present in them are scattered, conjoint and closed.

    Dicotyledonous Leaf and Monocotyledonous Leaf

    • These are also called as dorsiventral because of their distinct dorsal and ventral side.

    • They have reticulate venation.

    • The stomata in them is peent on the abaxial epidermis.

    • The vascular bundles are surrounded by bundle sheath cells.

    • The mesophyll is made up of the elongated palisade and oval or round spongy parenchyma cells.

    Monocotyledonous Leaf

    • These are also called as isobilateral because both of their sides are similar.

    • They have parallel venation.

    • The stomata in them are equally distributed on both sides.

    • The vascular bundles present are of the same size.

    • Some cells of the epidermis are modified to large cells called bulliform cells in grasses, they help in minimizing water loss.

    • The mesophyll is not differentiated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells


    Previous Year Solved Sample Questions

    Previous Year Solved Sample Questions

    Q1. Fibres associated with Phloem are:

    1. Hard Fibres

    2. Wood Fibres

    3. Surface Fibres

    4. Bast Fibres

    Answer: (4) Bast Fibres

    Q2. Passage Cells are found in:

    1. Dicot Stem

    2. Monocot Root

    3. Monocot Stem

    4. All of these

    Answer: (4) All of these

    Q3. Healing of wound in plants takes place by activity of:

    A) Intercalary meristem

    B) Secondary meristem

    C) Apical meristem

    D) Lateral meristem

    Answer: (B) Secondary Meristem

    Q4. In angiosperms, Xylem is made up of:

    1. Tracheids and Vessels

    2. Vessels and Fibres

    3. Tracheids and Fibres

    4. All of these

    Answer: (4) All of these

    Q5. In the monocot root, we observe:

    A) suberised exodermis, polyarch xylem, pith

    B) exodermis, endarch, tetrarchclosedbundles

    C) conjoint, collateral, open, polyarch vascular bundle

    D) suberised exodermis, casparian strip, passage cells, cambium

    Answer: (A)

    Q6. Vascular Cambium forms xylem on inner side and phloem on outer side due to:

    1. Effect of gravity

    2. Shearing force of wind

    3. Intrafascucilar nature

    4. Different action of hormones

    Answer: (4) Different action of hormones

    Q7. Meristematic tissues are composed of :

    A) mature cell

    B) fully differentiated cell

    C) cells that cannot divide

    D) immature cells with power to divide

    Answer: D) immature cells with power to divide

    Download NEET Practice Papers

    Tips to study Plant Anatomy

    • First of all, students are advised to go through the entire syllabus of Plant Anatomy. 
    • Analyze the complete syllabus and divide each topic according to the time left for the preparation of NEET 2020.
    • Students must learn all the examples and subdivision of tissue by heart and gather complete knowledge of the subject.
    • Be regular and consistent with what you are studying and keep revising everything from time to time.
    • Class Notes are the perfect example of an initiating step that helps you begin from scratch and build your concepts strong slowly. 
    • Pen down all the important information you receive in the class.
    • Solve the previous years’ question papers and attempt at least 10 to 15 mock tests before appearing for the actual examination. This helps you understand the paper pattern and the type of questions asked in the examination.

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